· Without a calibrated governance and management policy,

·         Performance & Behaviour: A system performs to attain its own and specified objectives. The SoS Performs and behaves in a way which leads to the attainment of overall objective of the SoS. This overall objective also satisfies both the SoS user needs and the system’s needs.

 

1.      SoS Management

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It is acceptable that having independent, concurrent management and funding authority at both the system and SoS levels is an important feature of acknowledged SoS. Stakeholders have been discussing ways to establish more effective governance processes to address the management issues. There exist some incongruity between technical applications and the managerial aspect of the SoS. Moreover, management issues get great attention.

For a SoS management issues are scalable. A successful SoS management is one which can reach across organizational limits or boundaries with a purpose of establishing an end-in-mind set of objectives and the resourced plan. Experienced managers are needed in a SoS environment to deal with competing interests in an SoS environment.

A SoS can potentially add-on to the complexity, scope, and cost of both the planning process and systems engineering. SoS can also introduces the need to coordinate inter-program activities and consents among multiple program managers as stakeholders. The problems addressed are usually large and complex and are not agreeable (generally) to solution only by better systems engineering. Independent administrative authorities at Department of Defence look for multiple governance processes. Without a calibrated governance and management policy, independent administrative authorities can put the systems engineer in a weak position by discarding their guidance in order to support the SoS. The DoD focuses on the clear management relationships. The SoS discussed here, by definition have managers and resources which coexist with the systems managers, and SoS SE and provided technical support to the SoS managers. This document does not make any recommendations for changes to the existing management policies but provides solutions to some extent.

2.      Net-Centricity

Net-Centricity is defined as the ability to provide a framework for full human and technical interoperability via a single network. Net-Centricity allows (1) allows all DoD users and mission partners to share the information they need, when they need it, in a form they can understand and act on with confidence, and (2) protects information from those who should not have it. The Net-Centric vision is to harness the power of information and network connectivity for all DoD users DoD, 2008.

The Net-Centric Data Strategy DoD CIO, 2003 establishes the communities of interest to solve high-priority data, information, and services issues faced by the Department of Defence. With the principle of visibility, unanticipated users can discover the information sources on the network; through the principle of accessibility, users pull that data if they meet the access control policies; through the principle of reliability the data is supplied by a single trusted source and through the principle of understand-ability, users pull the data that describes how to bind to the data.

The Net-Centric Services Strategy is used to expose information through a well-defined interface that is independent of the implementation of the service. The DoD approach to Net-Centric is relevant to DoD SoS of all types. The process of networking multiple systems to support the user capability is a common element of almost all SoS DoD CIO, 2003. However, how this is to be accomplished is not discussed in any detail in this guide due to the DoD policy and regulations DoD, 2003; DoD CIO, 2003; DoD CIO, 2005.

3.      Emergence:

The concept of emergence and its derivative term emergent behaviour has a long history; to this day there is no single-universal definition of emergence. The terms emergence and emergent behaviour are increasingly being used in SoS.

The concept is illustrated by some examples such as the following:

·                     The human brain behaviour is unknown or unpredictable.

·                     The social behaviour of a bee population is not predictable.

 

A working definition of emergent behaviour of a system is behaviour which is unexpected or cannot be predicted by knowledge of the system’s constituent parts.

For the purposes of an SoS, “unexpected” means unintentional, not known in advance, or surprising to the developers and users of the SoS. The emergent behaviour of a SoS can result from either the internal relationships among the constituents of the SoS or s relationship with its external environment. Consequences of the emergent behaviour may be harmful, beneficial, or unimportant by stakeholders of the SoS. 

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