A This novel did not hesitate to demonstrate

A clockwork orange has become somewhat of a classic novel through the ages because of its blunt criticism of governmental figures as well as the explicit descriptions of adult themes that had never been before seen. This managed to startle many therefor receiving a lot of backlash and growing in popularity. Consequently, many will argue that this novel was ahead of its time due the author’s blunt exaggerations of modern tendencies such as teen crime, rape, drug use, gang violence and corrupt authorities all inspired by the rise of mass delinquency as well as the general aftershocks of World War II in the 1950’s. In his novel “A clockwork orange” written in the 1950 and later published in 1961, Anthony Burgess seeks to criticize modern society through the creation of a totalitarian society that was meant to represent the near future. This novel did not hesitate to demonstrate the corruption of power through the use of the Ludovico Technique created by the minister of interior on our humble narrator and anti hero known as Alex that would later turn into positive attention towards the government’s campaign. In other words, the basis of this novel is based on the creation of the Ludovico technique installed by the government which consists of a criminal undergoing a showing of various clips of extreme violence such as gang rape and murder in order for the criminals to become disgusted of those acts. This program would potentially stop all crime by eliminating the power of choice between good and evil therefor transforming its victims into well rounded citizens. However, after criminals have gone through the program, they will no longer have the power to defend themselves. This brings the readers to ask themselves the question, did the government as well as the minister of interior truly want to eliminate mass delinquency through the creation of the Ludovico technique in order to help the criminals or did they create the program solely for personal gain. Throughout the novel, we will witness the effects that this technique will have on Alex and how the government or more specifically, the minister of interior will manage to profit on the success of this technique by getting more control over the state’s citizens. Therefore, the government in the novel created the Ludovico technique in order to gain more control over it’s citizens. The idea of a superficial government is introduced in part 1 of the novel through Alex’s various descriptions of the workings of his society. This introduction will manage to set the tone for the rest of the novel as well as give motives to why the government would possibly choose to invent a program to eliminate all crime. All throughout part 1, the reader witnesses the control that the government holds on its citizens by the state’s use of propaganda. Towards the beginning of the book, Alex describes how his droog  Dim gets distracted of the task at hand by the television broadcasting the words of the state. As he continues describing the scene, the reader can see how much of an influence that this broadcast will have on its citizens. This can be seen in chapter two where Alex states “Tonight was what thy called a world cast, meaning that the same programme was being viddied  by everybody in the world that wanted to, that being mostly the middle-aged middle-class lewdies .” (p. 23). This quote suggests that the broadcast is watched by most of Nadsat’s citizens consequently causing them all to stay inside of their homes. Therefore, through the use of pop culture, the government can ensure the social stability of the state since all citizens will be too occupied to rebel.  However, Alex being out with his friends on the street stands as somewhat of a threat to the government since they do not fit into the cookie cutter mold that the government has set for their citizens. Otherwise said, Alex and his gang did not conform with staying inside and being entertained by the world news. In addition, we can also see the state’s use of propaganda through Alex’s description of the painting on the walls of his apartment flat. This can be seen in chapter three where Alex describes what he sees in the painting “vecks  and ptitsas  very well developed, stern in the dignity of labour, at workbench and machine with not one stitch of platties  on their well-developed plotts  ” (p. 37). The evidence suggests that through this painting, the state tried to illustrate an image of their ideal worker, otherwise said, stern and attractive citizens. In addition, the painting almost creates a glamorous aspect surrounding the benefits of labour by making the men and woman in the illustration well dressed and determinate. As a result, every time a citizen passes that flat they will be bombarded with an image of what they should aspire to be, a proud worker of the state.  In short, the government manages to keep control of citizens through propaganda that is portrayed in media as well as in art. Thus, they manage to set ideals for citizens as well as stay in control. Secondly, towards the end of the second paragraph of part 1, we are able to see the functioning of the state that also manages to build the idea of a totalitarian government.  Throughout the novel, there are various hints pointing to inefficient authority however that point is confirmed when Alex meets the old homeless man. In this particular scene, Alex and his friends were searching for a bit of violence. As a result, they come across an old drunken fellow on the street which appeared to be a perfect target thus they start beating him. However, in this particular scene, the man does not mind being killed because he does not agree with what society had become “Men on the moon and men spinning round the earth like it might be midges round a lamp, and there’s not more attention paid to earthly law nor order no more.” (p. 20). As can be seen, the state puts more emphasis on appearance and would rather put their money into practises that they do not really need rather than actually put money into taking care of their citizens. This is one of the first examples that demonstrates that the government in the novel is much more interested in their general appearance than work on actual issues lying in their own society which will be a recurring theme throughout the novel. Such a practise can foreshadow how later in the novel the government and politicians such as the minister of interior may only want to use the Ludovico technique in order to get more positive recognition from their citizens than to actually help criminals in need.  Similarly, to this the old man also states “It’s a stinking world because it lets the young get on to the old like you done, and there’s no law nor order no more.” (p.20) gives the reader the idea that maybe youth crime can be beneficial to the governments running of society since they do nothing in their power to prevent the “young getting on the old” as the old man state. This could mean that the government tries to incorporate youth violence into their strategy towards attaining social stability. Otherwise said, like they did with the world broadcast, the state lets gangs such as Alex and his droogs run wild in the night because they manage to scare citizens into staying inside therefor keeping the government in control.  Hence, despite the fact that Alex and his droogs try to rebel against the law, they still somehow prevent other citizens from rebelling since they are considered dangerous. Thus, there are many hints in the novel pointing towards the idea that the government only values their image and control rather than care for the well being of their citizens. This can be seen through their use of propaganda as well as the inefficiency of authority. Consequently, we can judge that through the state’s theme throughout the novel of ensuring social stability as well as keeping an immaculate reputation, the government would choose to invent the Ludovico program in order to have better control over its citizens and improve their own overall image.  Early on in part two, Alex is captured and incarcerated thus we get to see a closer look into the power dynamic between law enforcement and its citizens. This part manages to give us in tell on the state’s ulterior motives. In other words, this part of the book we are able to see why the government would be able to profit off of the use of the Ludovico technique. Alex first hears about the Ludovico technique and the government’s search for volunteers through other prisoners after having spent around 2 years in prison and immediately jumps at the opportunity of possibility of being a candidate for the experimental program. Therefor when the minister of interior arrives, he quickly states his case. As we move forward in the book, the minister of interior is talking to the governor about why this program would be beneficial for citizens as he states “Cram criminals together and see what happens. You get concentrated criminality, crime in the midst of punishment. Soon we may be needing all our prison space for political offenders.” (P.101). In this quote, we can see that this program is being installed in order for prisons to be cleared from average criminals to make room for much bigger threats. In this case, it is safe to assume that the state is not trying to help the population but has simply found a solution for the inconvenience of concentration of criminality. Additionally, this motive provides us with more in tell on the workings of the governments, the state will become less tolerant of opposition. Moreover, the Ludovico technique presents itself as ideal solution to remove the juvenile threat that delinquents such as Alex and his droogs pose on civilians despite the fact that they are not in any way threatening to the government. In that sense, the government is abandoning the idea of using youth violence to their advantage and adopting a more structured and efficient solution to keep social stability. Subsequently, it is well known that youth violence is a big issue that troubles the population hence with the elimination of youth violence, civilians would be eternally grateful and the state would be praised. As a result, the government wouldn’t even need youth violence to keep their population under control since the government would be seen as proficient therefore the population would not even feel the need too rebel. This particular method adds on the idea of a totalitarian government, since the minister of interior is putting the Ludovico technique into action in order to keep the status quo.Moreover, as the second part progresses we are able to see how the Ludovico technique is put into action as well as the extent that the government will go to keep control over its citizens. That is to say, Alex is injected with a liquid that the minister insists that is vitamins and is subjected to watch various clips of extreme violence while being supervised by doctor Branom. In this part of the book, Alex is still convinced that he has the upper hand and that he will be free from the government in no time. In other words, due to the fact that he is so confident in the safety of the treatment, he is not threatened by the state so he does not question their methods because he strongly believes that he will exit the treatment unchanged. Needless to say, that throughout part two we are able to see evil nature of the treatment as well as the abdominal nature of the films. In addition, after his first time viewing the films in the beginning of part two, Alex states ” (…) if these films were made by the Good or the State you couldn’t imagine them being allowed to take these films without like interfering with what was going on.”(p.114). This goes to show how the films include violence that would in no way be legal. Consequently, we can see that the government isn’t concerned with those acts of violence and will do whatever it takes in order to achieve control over its citizens. Thus, this proves that the government did not create the program in order to lower crime rates and cure criminals such as Alex and his droogs. As a matter a fact, the extreme violence in the films actually demonstrate the state’s hypocrisy and once again shows how the state will not hesitate to advocate violence if its to their advantage despite the fact that they supposedly created the program to get rid of violence. Furthermore, we are able to see the extent to which the government is in control by Alex’s disbelief of the authenticity of the films “it must have been very clever what they call cutting or editing or some such veshch “(p.114). In this case, the government is taking advantage of the citizen’s credulousness towards the idea of the state’s righteousness. In the case of Alex’s, the government knows that he could never imagine how the state could possibly be corrupt therefor he has no problem trusting that they will take good care of him making it easier for the government to manipulate him. Thus, through their manipulation of Alex, we can see the power dynamic between the state and its citizens. All things considered, the lack of concern that the state has for the unmoral acts in the films as well as the various benefits that the state gains from the use of the technique that will manage to keep social stability go to show how the government is only putting the Ludovico technique into place in order to get more control over it’s citizens.Lastly, in part 3 of the novel, we are able to see the governments negligence towards negative effects that the Ludovico program has on Alex as well as the government’s authoritative corruption. Moreover, in the beginning of part three we are also able to see another side to the government’s hypocrisy regarding figures of authority. Throughout the novel, we witness how Alex and his droogs are a threat to all citizens and patrol the streets through acts of violence. However, in part three readers learn that two of Alex’s past droogs under the name of Dim and Billyboy are now a part of the police forces despite their evil nature. Furthermore, after leaving the program, Alex no longer has the power to defend himself and throughout part three we can see how the government takes advantage of that. Thus, when Alex came across his old pals, they took advantage over the fact that he was powerless as we can see in this particular scene “Streets must be kept clean in more than one way.” (p.161) where Dim and Billyboy are taking Alex to a secluded place to get revenge on the way he used to treat them when Alex was the leader of the gang. This goes to show once again that the state is only concerned on how they are perceived by the general population rather than keeping the streets free of crime. Additionally, this is another case where the government is using criminal practices to their advantage. Otherwise said, in part one the state used criminals to patrol the streets by using violence to scare citizens. However, in part three, we witness how they have managed to continue that practice by constructing their police forces out of crooks. In that sense, they manage to keep using criminals to evoke fear in their population but have managed to perfect that method in order to look better. Thus, through turning crooks into policemen, the state can look like they are increasing their police forces and making the streets safer for citizens in spite of the fact that they are doing the exact opposite. Moreover, the reader is able to see the extent that authorities don’t bother to intervene and put a stop to violent acts when Alex is being beaten by his past friends as can be seen in this particular quote “He took no notice of what Billyboy and Dim did to your Humble Narrator” (p. 162). That passage reinforces the thought that the state is indifferent to Alex’s nature. In other words, whether he be good or bad, the government will always take advantage of any opportunity to demonstrate its power over him. This goes to show the extent at which the government does not care for its citizens as well as whether they are a threat or not as long as the state has an overall positive reputation.   As we arrive towards the end of the book, we are able to see how the government will do whatever it takes to maintain a good reputation even if they might have to completely change their strategy in order to keep control. Furthermore, this part manages to put emphasis on the government’s authoritative corruption through their lack of hesitation to reverse the effects of the program on Alex once they started to get negative backlash from a paper written by F. Alexander. That is to say, towards the end of part 3, the population picks up on the injustice of the Ludovico program due to a paper written by  F. Alexander shortly before he causes Alex to attempt suicide when he realised that Alex had raped his wife back when Alex used to terrorise the streets. This leads to Alex waking up in a hospital bed no longer having to endure the effects of the Ludovico program as a result of the government reversing it in order to reduce all of the bad press against the state. In the last before last chapter of the book, we witness Alex waking up and the minister of interior is telling him that F. Alexander was using him for his own personal gain which is shown here   “There are certain men who wanted to use you, yes, use you for political ends. They would have been glad, yes, glad for you to be dead, for they thought they could then blame it all on the Government.” (p.191). Through the minister of interior’s speech, we can see how the government is trying to befriend Alex and turn him against F. Alexander. It is easy to predict that the government now cares for Alex’s opinion since citizens have taken an interest in Alex’s case. This brings a whole new perspective to the book because the government now needs Alex’s approval in order for them to keep having a positive reputation amongst the citizens of the state. Consequently, in order for the government to get Alex’s head of approval they had to undo all of the effects of the Ludovico program despite the fact that that would mean that Alex would turn into a full-blown criminal once again and would technically become a threat to the state’s ideology. Taking that into consideration goes to show that the only reason that the government put the Ludovico program into place was to get a better reputation throughout the citizens of the state in order for the population to give them praise. This would consequently result in the state’s utmost control over the population. On account of that, when the state ended up receiving unanticipated backlash from the population instead of praise they immediately reversed the effects of the program. For this reason, the reversal of the effects of the program proves to the reader that the state only put the program into place to gain control over the population.  

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