ABSTRACT photoshopped themselves in real life.”(Simpson, 2014). He

ABSTRACT

 

This study to know the concept of spornosexuality, as it existed in
this urban area, and to understand what experiences spornosexual individuals go
through, day-in, day-out. The study was anchored on an understanding of the concept
the spornosexual faced, as he gears toward his lifestyle revamp.Besides, it was
clear that the spornosexual individual strove to create an image for himself,
either to build or rebuild it. Individual experiences affected their individual
motives; thus, they strove to adapt and make drastic changes in their lives.
The study showed how the spornosexual individual is no different from the
common individual, being driven by individual motivations to achieve and be
triumphant with personal goals.

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Spornosexuality is a new modern of social tribes that being created
into the individuals. (Brennan, 2007; Hall and Gough, 2011; Simpson, 2012. The
need to be own perfect body hero trend just seems to be accelerating 8 in a
shocking speed. Tanning salons, gyms and body building magazines sales are
peaking throughout the whole country ( Notaro, 2017). Moreover, `Selfie`
phenomena is constantly increasing and affecting more young individuals than
before. The number of new active users is constantly growing along with the
number of photos that are being uploaded on-line. Additionally, millennials
seem to dominate in the ‘selfie’ world adding up to 55% of the total self
portraits uploaded (Papisova, 2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

            The British journalist who coined the
term “Metrosexual”, Mark Simpson, says a new version of the urban man has
emerged, which he calls the spornosexual. Simpson’s theory is that the rise of
selfies, social networks and pornography have led to a generation of young men
obsessed with being desired for their bodies and far less in wardrobe and
intellect matter.

According to Louis Berman (n.d), Mark Simpson who wrote an article
in year 1994 pointed that a metrosexual man is a new narcissistic,
self-conscious kind of masculinity produced by film and glossy magazines. In
other word, a non-homosexual adopting many of the traits and interests of
homosexual men narcissistic, self-conscious ways, an interest in grooming, fashion
and style. For example, Lee Dong- Min, a 20 years old Korean actor that start
each day with meticulous efforts to paint the perfect face by applying toner,
BB cream, serum, lotion, facial and sun block. He also put on lip balm and
foundation.  

“Unlike David Beckham’s metrosexual ads of old, in which his
attributes were possibly artificially enhanced with today’s spornosexuals have
photoshopped themselves in real life.”(Simpson, 2014). He also stated that this
new wave puts the “sexual” into metrosexuality. In fact, a new term is needed
to describe them, these pumped-up offspring of those Christiano Ronaldo and
David Beckham lunch box ads, where sport got into bed with porn while Mr Armani
took pictures. Both James Bond and David Beckham were identified as examples of
metrosexual archetypes within this study. Bond was defined as masculine due to
his toughness and sexual prowess.

According to Meredith Engel (2014), the new term of “Spornosexual”
embodies the modern day man who is often at the gym working on his fitness just
to look chiselled, tanned and hot. Spornosexual man prefers to spend his time,
his money on his physical upkeep and he does not shy showing off his results to
the public in social media.

In the article Daily Telegraph newspaper, it says that “The
metrosexual is dead. Long live the spornosexual.” Media outlets from New York
to Munich have picked up the term, which is a cross between the words sport and
porno (Asia News Monitor, 2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1 PROBLEM
STATEMENT

 

            People nowadays using the internet
as a medium to send or portrayed themselves in social media and interact with
one another. According to Andzulis and Mitchell (2014), social media has
altered the day-to-day lives of individuals in their social interactions.
“Social Media refers to the means of interactions among people in which they
create, share and/or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and
networks. Social media technologies take many different forms including
magazines, internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, wikis, social networks, or
pictures” ( Allen & Brianna, 2013). Due to this subject the main concern of
this research is what are the impact of being and portraying as spornosexual in
social media?

            Spornosexual is a new term created
by Mark Simpson in 2014 which describe men who obsessed with being desired for
their bodies especially in this urban day. According to Peacock (2014),
spornosexual also encapsulates the new breed of male who thinks nothing of
using products, practises and pleasures previously only the domain of women and
gay men. Apart from that, spornosexual is also related to “Metrosexual” which
is a new wave of metrosexual. This study is conducted to understand the factors
of spornosexual that become the society’s interest.

            Simpson (2014) also stated that, the
differences between spornosexual and metrosexual is spornosexuals focus less on
clothes and more on their own bodies. They want to be wanted for their bodies,
not their wardrobe and certainly not their minds. They also prefers to spend
their time and money on their physical upkeep and does not shy showing off.
This type of men has worried many parties because these things can lead to a
negative direction where their selfies from half naked to naked.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As
for the above mention phenomenon, this research will study the concept of
spornosexual that portrayed in social media through  several research question as stated below.

Therefore,
there is significant on the concept of spornosexual potrayed in social media by
this research question.

1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION

1.    
What
are the factors that contribute to the trend of spornosexual in social media?

 

2.    
What
are the impact of spornosexual in social media?   

 

 

3.    
Is
there a relationship between the role of the social media and the spornosexual?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3 RESEARCH
OBJECTIVE

The specific objectives of this study are:

 

1.     
To
study the factors that contribute to the trend of spornosexual in social media.

 

2.     
To
study the impact of spornosexual in social media.

 

 

 

3.     
To find
out if there is a relationship between the role of the social media and the
emergence of the spornosexual men.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4  SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

 

            The
scope of the study for this research is aimed at the spornosexual specifically
young and adult men in this urban area and the public in social media. This
research can be used as guideline to understand more on the concept of
spornosexual. Besides that, it will answered question regarding on how and why
concept and terms of spornosexual exist. This
study is carried out in the context of young men and therefore, this only
applicable to the group of young men metrosexuals who share or possess similar
characteristics to the subjects involved in this study only. As metrosexuals
can either be heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual (see Simpson’s 1994), however,
Beynon (2002) claims that gay men also establish and perform ‘hyper-masculinity’
as a presentational strategy to materialize the image of heterosexual
(straight) men.

            The
limitation of conducting this research is how truthful a spornosexual man
answered the question given by the researcher as some of the answers may not be
answered due to sensitivity and spornosexual
man tends to keep it to themselves. Thus, this research regarding spornosexual
is not wide and lack of information because spornosexual is a new term which is
in 2014 by Mark Simpson. It just a few researcher only doing this research and
to take information about this will take a lot of time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

 

This research is to educate the society on the do’s and don’ts in
using social media. This is to ensure that the society especially young and
adult men are using the social media in a correct way because some of the
photos that will be uploading may be naked and will create a sensitive issues
in Malaysia culture. There will be some norms and taboo in the Malaysian
culture that does not follow the western culture. Throughout this research, the
society will be more aware and sensitive towards the issues.

The impact of the value added on the social media can give a
contribution towards the social life and attribute of the Malaysia society. If
this country having a good society, it also can make build this country to be
the better country. Not only that, it will give a great impact towards the
nation development in Malaysia.

Besides, it does give and bring benefits to an organization in
advertising field because throughout the social media, they get to find
spornosexual type young men to be advertise in their advertisement and give a
big impact to their advertisement. This will make the young men to portray
themselves in the social media. An advertising organization also will gain a
lot benefits especially for their finance. Furthermore, this research is
telling on why the spornosexual become a concept in the social media.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

2.0 LITERATURE
REVIEW

 

2.1
METROSEXUALITY AND MASCULINITY

                 Metrosexuality
is a term which is generally applied to heterosexual men with a strong concern
for their appearance or whose lifestyles display the exploration of their own
so- called feminine manner. A person who does not seem to flinch away from the
thought of pampering himself and would not mind going a step further by
flaunting this desire. It is within this framework or being gay as a different
off shoot of masculine identity altogether. It also has been proposed as a form
of masculine capital.( Visser and McDonnell, 2013).

Homosexuality or being gay is not primarily image oriented. While
metrosexuality deals with experimentation in terms of one’s outward physical
appearance, homosexuality primarily deals with an alternative sexual
preference. Even though at the outset both these terms evoked very similar
images in the world of popular perception. In reality they assume a host of
completely different implications. In order to understand these terms and trace
their origin understanding masculinity as a term is very essential.
(B.Bhatttacharyya,2013).

Besides, masculinity has been seen to be constructed as the
necessary counterpart to heterosexuality and so anything that does not fit into
this pairing up of masculinity and heterosexuality becomes understood as being
different. As metrosexual men, they could not fit into the traditional
masculinity category and it led to the assumption that they were a new type of
men emerging in this decade.(Orathai Piayura, 2013)

 

2.2 Muscle
Dysmorphia and Related Body Image Disorders.

Muscle Dysmorphia is an emerging condition that primarily affects
male bodybuilders. Such individuals obsess about being inadequately muscular.
Compulsions include spending hours in the gym, squandering excessive amounts of
money on sport supplements that ineffectual, abnormal eating patterns or even
substance abuse. I suggest that muscle dysmorphia may be a new expression of a
common pathology shared with the eating disorders.(Mosley P.E,2009).

Body
image disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been well
documented in the clinical literature. Societal pressures ranging from media
advertisement campaigns to sport icons often dictate the way an “ideal” body
should look. For several decades, much of the focus on body images disorders
has centred on women. In American society, male are encouraged to be muscular
and “ripped” (Leone J.E & Gray K.A, 2005). 

 

2.3 Impression Management Obsession.

            The issues with impression management that we have in society today
are perpetuated through the media and how it portrays body image. Just as one
family affected the family member, society and media are influenced by the
capitalist or consumer society. It is made so that we all have a certain role
to play and a certain way to look and if we do not fit into that then we do not
get as far in the social world as one who may be ideal in the looks department.
They reap the social rewards that society has to offer. Big corporations feed
on this and make the public even more needy of the ideal body image by throwing
it in their faces everyday on the television. Writer Allen Ginsberg once said,
“Whoever controls the media – images- controls the culture” (Jacobs M.B, 2003).

According to Jacobs (2003), Society is based on looks and the
capitalist society that we live in does not promote realistic beauty ideals or
cater to the average woman. We all have issues with our bodies whether it comes
from being bombarded with these wafer thin images portrayed in magazines or
from the family we were raised in. At both micro and macro social levels,
obsession with body image is a social dilemma we will all face in our lifetime.

 

2.4 The Use of Internet and Social Media

            Internet has become an important and part of the daily
life of person. Without internet and gadget such as mobile phone, it will be
hard for person to live as all the daily activities usually will be uploaded on
social media such as instagram, twitter and facebook. The social media had
become a virtual diary for the society nowadays. The use of social media can be
use in a good and bad way which will give a negative or positive towards the
person. According to Reddick (2012), both the internet and social media provide
almost instant access to unlimited resources and allows all users to feel connected
in ways that were not possible in the past. Thus, by using internet and social
has changed the way we interact with each other physically or intimately.
Furthermore, spornosexual young and adults men can easily uploaded their naked
photos in social media which encourage the increasing number of gay people.
Sexuality is a crucial factor in our human experience that is seriously
impacted by the internet (Cooper,et al., 2000). According to Ross 2005, “The
increasing salience of sexuality on the internet nowadays whether cybersex or
use of the internet to make sexual contacts, has focused interest on how
internet- mediated sexuality informs social theory”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.5 RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

 

The
Concept of Spornosexual Portrayed in Social Media

 

 

 

 

 

 

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