ALTERNATE an optimum 35.8% comfort in winter months


Ishita Arora

Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha
University, Delhi



Climate is the characterising
feature to develop Building form and fabric. The comfort zone on the building is characterised by a
well-known indicator for climate analysis and is used to establish the climatic
design strategies called as psychrometric. It is vital to fabricate appropriate
thermal comfort threshold for the people living, considering their transforming
to very humid domain in day time, same as in case for night it can be circumvent.
The adjunct of comfort zone by air manoeuvre depends on occupant’s clothing,
activity and different between skin/clothing and the air temperature.
The climate data analysis shows that the optimal building orientation that
provides optimum sun control in north-south, for natural ventilation north-west emplacement is required and
therefore provides an optimum 35.8% comfort in winter months and 1% comfort in
summer. Natural ventilation can store night-time cooling in high mass interior
surfaces, thus reducing air conditioning and it bestows to 2.9% comfort in the winter
months. Hot winds blow during the day in summers and sand storms are
also encounter, as the night is usually chilly and pleasing. It has been a substantial comportment
mass walls of stones and bricks, roofs with high thermal resistance with
minimal window openings in south direction with proper sun shading. U – Value: is defined as the amount
of heat that gets transmitted through a unit area of a material for a unit
difference in temperature. The lower the U-Value of the material, the lesser
the heat transfer, and better the thermal efficiency.





an enclosure that dominance swelter exchange between interior and exterior, and
plays a foremost capacity in providing thermal comfort surroundings of

In the propagate sphere, with
different technology, attribute of modern buildings is just the erect form,
without appraising the principles that created a conductive environment for
spaces & are replaced with automated ways.

Hot and arid areas
have very harsh conditions that need very well thought out solutions to deal
with the problems presented by the climate. An architect should ensure that the
buildings designed in these areas, stands and provide protection to human
beings against the harsh elements. The built forms should ideally address high
ground and air temperatures, high solar radiation by day and high cooling
radiation at night.

buildings in these areas should be made in response to these climatic
requirements. This compromises the thermal comfort of the modern built forms in
these areas. Unlike the modern buildings, the traditional built forms respond
positively to the elements by maintaining constant low temperatures during the
day, reducing the solar radiation and increasing the temperatures in the cold



Design of the building envelope

overall design can help determine the amount of lighting, heating, and cooling
a building will require. Architects and engineers have developed innovative new
ways to improve overall building design in order to maximize light and heat
efficiency, for example through passive solar heating, which uses the sun’s
heat to warm the building when it is cold without relying on any mechanical or
electrical equipment. Local climate is an important determinant for identifying
the design features that will result in the greatest reductions of energy
needs. These may include such things as south-facing windows in cool climates
and shading to avoid summer sun in hot climates

2. Building envelope materials and product

Embodied energy

Embodied energy
refers to the energy required to extract, manufacture, transport, install, and
dispose of building materials, including those used in the building envelope.
Efforts to reduce this energy use and associated emissions, for example through
the substitution of bio-based products, can be made aspart
of a larger effort to reduce emissions from buildings. Insulation and air
sealing. Heat naturally flows from a warmer to a cooler space; insulation
provides resistance to heat flow, there reduce the amount of energy needed to
keep a building warm in the winter and cool in the summer.


Fig 1. showing the amount of heat
absorbed by different wall materials – Source: Stay Cool a design guide for
the built environment in hot climates, Holger Koch- Nielsen, Cromwell Press


1.       AIM


To propose the list of alternate
materials in hot-arid climate establishing their suitability, in comparison
with the existing materials and technology with respect to their thermal
physical properties

In hot regions, buildings normally
face three main issues with respect to the thermal comfort principles:

• Excessive heat gain in summer

• Excessive heat loss in winter

• High relative humidity level

Therefore in order to reach an
acceptable thermal comfort level, building as subject, should be designed in a
way to reduce the above-mentioned defects.


find out the existing materials and technologies for building in hot & arid

the comfort and climatic parameters of hot and arid climate architecture.

study the available & upcoming alternative materials and technology for the

the respective performance of convential and modern materials and technologies
and the factors influencing the design strategies and design evolution for construction
in hot arid climate

propose a prospective list of materials & technologies for hot arid climate
in order of their performance




of people living in hot-arid climate with respect the qualitative aspects of

research from library.

about designed philosophies and experience of professionals involved in
relevant projects through their writing and interviews.

study of the regions in hot-arid climate both locally & globally.






To attain
the equitable of the learning the Heat Transfer through Building form and
fabric ‘CLIMATE CONSULTANT’ was used to analyse, asses and indicate the thermal
performance. The initial juncture was to apply a design blueprint discreetly
with vernacular materials to reckon the thermal physical premises. The subsequent
phase was to amalgamate all designate design strategies in solitary prototype. Thermal
physical properties were the gauge that were used to evaluate the thermal
performance of the each material equate to its vernacular material.While
learning about the vernacular construction in specific about the technology
used for  construction materials used in
hot and dry climate, the following properties: High thermal mass structures to
subdue the oscillate of the exterior temperature and counterpoise the indoor
temperature , high reflective property, building surface with high emittance
property and not shiny metallic surface , smooth texture, highly resistant to
strain imposed by high diurnal temperature range, low heat absorption rate to
reduce heat penetration into the building interior and locally available
materials to reduce the cost of transportation.





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