BSc (Hons) in Computing
Module Code & Title: COSE60636 – EIRLS1
Prepared By: Mohamed Arzad Ali (CB006647)
of Submission:26th January 2018
Instructor: Mr. Chathuranga Manamendra
Word Count: 1410
I would like
to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided me the possibility
to complete this assignment. Special thanks to my module lecturer Mr. Chathuranga
Manamendra for handing over this assignment to gain knowledge in research Analysis,
Knowledge and understanding, communication, referencing, critical thinking and
Furthermore, I would also like to acknowledge with much
appreciation the crucial roles of the class members for the help in completing
the given tasks successfully. Thanking everyone who supported directly and
indirectly to completing this assignment.
Disaster is one of the key factor which leads to
destruction of properties and potential loss of human life. So, a disaster
management system is needed to prevent such disasters or to help and protect
the life and properties Here I am focusing on a research by analyzing the
existing system and how we can improve this scenario using currently available
technologies. A major part of my research is how disaster management strategy can
be enhanced by using current advanced technology to help in the assessment,
analysis, recovery and restoration phase of the situation. So, here I will be
analyzing the possible solutions on how the University could handle and utilize
information from existing systems to support the strategy. According to
researchers and analyzers, there is clear lack of research awareness and
studies in the e-government literature, regarding the role of advanced
technologies in improving disaster preparedness and response and building safe
and secure disaster management system. Therefore, this research paper, which is
based on a review of the literature and a case study, intends to contribute to
the definition of the research priorities needed to build and implement
disaster preparedness which can save many potential losses of life and
properties in future. In this research paper, I will be analyzing the nature of
the problem, solution to the problem on how the problem can be solved using
technologies and techniques.
we have just embarked upon a new modern period of world, natural hazard
prevention is set to play a prominent role in global efforts to reduce human
suffering and damage to natural and built environments. Disaster reduction is
both possible and feasible if the modern technologies are properly applied to
prevent disasters around us which can save many lives and properties.
to Basher (2013), One of the great disaster risk reduction achievements of recent
times has been the development of proper early warning systems for earthquakes,
hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, heavy rainfall, flooding, snowfall, high
winds and other extreme natural hazards. According to years of public and
government investment in scientific research and data gathering systems, advanced
computer models can now replicate the physics of the atmosphere and its weather
systems and the behaviour of water on the land. National meteorological and
hydrological services continuously provide timely and detailed forecasts
allowing organisations and individuals to prepare and protect themselves.
are many real-time instances where science and technology helped in preventing
disasters. Some examples of where technology implementation has been driven by
the occurrence of a major disaster include the 1994 Northridge Earthquake where
GIS took center stage during the initial response and recovery periods by
providing important visual and spatial information on critical operations; another
well-known disaster is, the World Trade Center attacks which demonstrated the
potential use of remote sensing technologies for damage assessment and
recovery; and Hurricane Charley in 2004 where the implementation of GPS-based,
field survey technologies helped to freeze in time the damage and destruction
of this disaster. All of these events underscore the opportunities that emerge
when time-critical information can be delivered more efficiently to users
making critical decisions during the disaster.
There are many challenges in
disaster management like when public are not properly warned about the disaster
at the time, lack of communication which is one of the main problem which can
cause possible loss of life and property at the time of disasters, lack of
knowledge about disasters, no pre-planned precautions at the time of disaster
and more. Disasters can occur at any time in any place which is beyond human
knowledge, but in this technological advanced era, there are ways we can
predict the disasters and can able to warn public at a given time. But, these
awareness and warning systems are not fully implemented in many areas which
causes many losses of life and property. Primary mitigation refers to reducing
the resistance of the disaster and reducing vulnerability. Secondary mitigation
refers to reducing the effects of the disaster. Mitigation includes recognizing
that disasters will occur; attempts are made to reduce the harmful effects of a
disaster, and to limit their impact on human suffering and economic assets.
When it comes to
communication, most of the currently available communication systems are more
vulnerable which are likely to fail if some disasters occur. For that we need
to have a backup communication system or public communication which can get to
all public at the time of disasters.
According to a
research article published by IJRREST (2012), Geo-information
Technologies (GIT) are playing an important role for an efficient management of
natural disasters all around the world. Among them space technologies are more
accurate for Geo-information acquisition in an efficient and fast way. Their
research paper is focused on the potential uses of GIT for natural disaster
management of various natural hazards and disasters across the world. The GIT
includes Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS), GPS and
Web technology mainly. The use of remote sensing and GIS has grown as an
integrated, well developed and trusted tool in disaster management which is also
easy to implement in universities which can be used for early warnings and
predictions which can save possible way of loss of life and properties in
university premises within a limited time. Spatial analysis of hazard is a
complex task, as many factors play important role in the occurrence of the
disastrous event. Therefore, analysis requires many input parameters for
per-disaster, disaster and post-disaster phases.
According to a research
article published by Esri (2000), Natural Disasters and most human-generated
hazards do not consider political boundaries, yet laws and policies should be
generated to mitigate effectively against disaster, manage rescue and response
operations, or organize and deliver relief, and these laws and policies are
usually managed within politically defined areas. Geographic information Systems(GIS)
within which the data it is collected and managed have utility in modeling and
analysis, which transcend political boundaries while providing the necessary
structure for assisting the implementation of policy within administrative
areas. So, to handle and implement disaster management we need to come out of
these political boundaries which can only help us handling such situations.
recent times, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology became more
popular and efficient in many ways. While GIS can provide information on the
static locations of critical infrastructure and evacuation routes, they do not
provide the dynamically changing locations of things and people on the move. In
contrast, RFID wireless network technology can automatically identify and track
the movement of assets like fire engines, ambulances, and rescue worker and
vulnerable citizens like elderly and the disabled on the move, and hence
providing local governments and communities with real-time information and
enhanced decision-making capabilities, during disaster response operations.
This RFID can be used to predict disasters using past data and can be used to
predict the future disasters using the analysis and prediction methods which
can be used to warn public before incident occurs.
In disaster management, while
prevention, preparation, detection and assessment of a disaster usually take
place in stationary environment like universities, reaction on a disaster
requires to a high degree the coordination of mobile task forces that are
dispatched on location for disaster management. In implementing such mobile
task forces to a disaster management system, an important challenge is the
efficient utilization of the deployed disaster management resources with
respect to the question, when and where which resource is assigned to what task
of disaster occurred area in a limited time.
The conclusion of my research is that there are many possible ways to
build a disaster management system using the advanced technology which can save
loss of lives and properties. In this research I have learnt about existing
disaster management systems, the implementation of technology, possibilities in
building a technological advanced disaster management system, possibilities of
failure when it comes to technology and solutions to overcome such situations.
In this study I have mainly focused on
practical experiences of GIS and RFID, and importance and implication of using
such technologies to build an advanced disaster management system. I came across many challenges in completing this research paper where
the analyzing of technologies, challenge in experimenting the current system
and learning about advanced technological systems that are used in disaster
management were major challenges that I came across throughout this research
paper and I have successfully overcame these challenges which lead me to finish
this research article on disaster management system.
Arxiv.org. (n.d.). The Role
of Artificial Intelligence technologies in Crisis Response. online Available
at: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0806/0806.1280.pdf Accessed 30 Nov.
Citeseerx.ist.psu.edu. (2010). E-Government Challenge in
Disaster Evacuation Response: The Role of RFID Technology in Building
Safe and Secure Local Communities. online Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.359.6615&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.
(2012). Role of Recent Technology in Disaster Management. online
Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.
Iitk.ac.in. (2008). The
Application of Remote Sensing Te chnologies for Disaster Management.
online Available at: http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/14_K004.pdf
Accessed 29 Nov. 2017.
Preventionweb.net. (2013). Science
and Technology for Disaster Risk Reduction. online Available at:
Accessed 28 Nov. 2017.
Basher, R. (2013) ‘Science and Technology for Disaster Risk Reduction?: A
review of application and coordination needs’, UNISDR Publication,
Radke, J., Cova, T., F. Sheridan, M., Troy, A., Mu, L. and
Johnson, R. (2000). Challenges for GIS in Emergency Preparedness and
Response. online Esri.com. Available at:
http://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/challenges.pdf Accessed 25 Nov.
A., Luckenbach, T. and Risse, T. (2002) ‘Design Challenges for an Integrated
Disaster Management Communication and Information System’, The First IEEE
Workshop …, (Diren). doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2009.07.002.
Sena, L. (2006) ‘Disaster
Prevention and Preparedness’, Ethopia Public Health Training Initiative,
1(November), pp. 1–180.