CHAPTER survey technique. This technique permits people to

CHAPTER
3

METHODOLOGY

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The chapter relates to the process as
well as method of the study and describes in detail the different stages by
which the study has gone through.

Research
Design

The selection of the research design
depends upon the aim of the study as well as the form of concerns that efforts
to resolve (Yin, 2003). This study seeks to enquire the perception of
Prospective Teachers to what extent the content of Peace Education was being
implemented from the curriculum and to what extent the content of Peace
Education must be encompassed in the curriculum. For this purpose quantitative
approach was adopted to explore the phenomena.

Basically the research design is
descriptive in nature. The research was conducted in different Universities of
Lahore. For this purpose, survey technique was selected to collect information
from the students. Because the survey technique is useful in gathering
information from the people at small scale who represent the whole population
(sample survey research). Due to the high representativeness caused by the
survey technique, it is usually better to get statistically significant effects
as compare to any other data gathering approach. Several factors may also be
efficiently examined by utilizing survey technique. This technique permits
people to feel more candid with their responses and provides high reliability
that eradicates the researcher’s own biasness which led to precise the results.

“Survey techniques provide on their own
in order to probability sampling from large Populations. Therefore, Survey
studies really attractive whenever small sample generalizability is really a
main investigation objective. Actually, Survey studies represent the attitudes
and characteristics of large population.”(Weiss et al., 2001)

Population

The population mentioned in the table
3.1 given below taken to conduct this study was the male and female prospective
teachers of Public and private Universities of Lahore.

Table
3.1

Total
Population by Programme

Sr.NO

Classes(Major)

M.A(Edu)

M.Ed

B.Ed

B.Ed(Hons)

Total

1

No.of Students

430

448

1176

188

2242

 

Sampling

The study was descriptive in nature; by
the researcher it was not possible to access the total population according to
table 3.1 given above. Subsequently the researcher used random

Sampling technique for the study because
it was the most suitable technique to gather data.he Researcher conducted study
on four (Major) classes from University of Education Lahore i.e.. Ed, MA
(Education) and B.Ed (Honor).

Rational
of the Sample

1.     
Keeping in view of the purpose of the
study only such Division/ campuses were selected Where the B.Ed, M.Ed, M.A
Education and B.Ed (Hon) classes were offered.

2.     
Rational of the sample describes the
entire target population because:

a)     
Homogenity of the “target and accessible
population’.

b)     
Different Universities as like UMT
Lahore, Minhaj University Lahore, university of Punjab Lahore, Lahore College
Woman university Lahore, Leads Universit Lahore are mainly responsible for
preparing the course outline of all the “Targeted programs i e. B.Ed, M.Ed, M.A
 Education”.

3.     
The researcher selected 513 students out
of 2242 students for collecting data and circulated the questionnaire to the
students. The standard sample size i.e. 513 was determined at 99% confidence
level with 05 confidence interval of total population 2242.

Instrument
for Data Collection

Questionnaire is the main instrument in
the survey techniques that used to study problems and behaviors that vary time
to time, in quantify form (methods in educational Research). “The Questionnaire
is a widely used and useful instrument for collecting survey information,
providing Structured, often numerical data, being able to be administered
without the presence of the Researcher, and often being comparatively
straightforward to analyze” (Wilson and McLean 1994y A questionnaire used
as a tool of research to gather the data from sample and get Validated from
experts/supervisor. The questionnaire consisted of 64 variables upon which the Opinion
of the students was measured on Preparedness of Prospective Teachers in
Promoting Peace Education in the University of Education, Lahore for current
situation and also their Recommendation for the future. There were three main
factors on which data to be collected from Prospective Teachers. The factors
were Promoting Peace Education as a part of their ‘Amu’ Mucational and Social
matters. The questions were to be answered on 5 point liken Not at AIL. ’10
Some Extent, o Medium Extent, To Large Exte t and To Very Large

ly)
for current situation as well as future situation. The researcher categories
items as:

Factors

Sr.No

Statement

Personal

1

Art
of Mediation

2

Art
of reconciliation

3

Art
of negotiation

4

Building
relationship with others

5

Awareness
about non violence

6

How
to solve intra conflicts

7

How
to solve problems

8

How
to handle undesired situation

9

How
to manage time effectively

10

Personal
developments

11

Self-awareness

12

How
to cope with stress

13

How
to show patience

14

Forgiveness

15

How
to build tolerance

16

Positive
vision

17

Self-respect

18

How
to make right decision

19

Avoiding
Deprivation of basic human need

20

Economical
oppression

21

Avoiding
Male chauvinism

22

Avoiding
Discrimination

23

How
to control anger

24

How
to show patience

Educational

25

Educational
planning

26

How
to plan educational activates

27

Test
taking skills

28

Curriculum
development

29

Study
skill techniques

30

Creating
peaceable classroom

31

Promoting
post conflict stability

32

Increasing
peace building capacity

33

International
education

Social

34

How
to mitigate conflicts

35

Restorative
justice

36

Culture
of peace

37

Inter
person skill

38

How
to overcome trauma

39

Encouraging
peer counseling

40

Multicultural
awareness

41

Society
awareness

42

Gender
equity

43

How
to set environment favorable

44

Culture
of peace in school

45

How
to understand culture of peace in community

46

How
to understand culture of peace in society

47

How
to care human rights

48

Avoiding
bullying

49

How
to avoid noise pollution

50

Peace
club

51

Peace
games

52

Upholding
human dignity

53

Challenging
prejudice

54

Human
solidity

55

Empathy

56

Respect
for others

57

Compassion

58

Decreasing
ethnic stereotype

59

Proposing
world peace

 

60

Direct
violence through physical confrontations

61

Global
citizenship

62

Avoiding
marginalizing the minorities

 

Validation of
Instrument

Gay’s explantion seemed to be considered
for a qualifying measure for any understanding of validity. As per the
explanation “validation is a degree to which a test Measures what it supposed
to measure… (and) and for what and for when” (Clay, 2005). Identical Review
of literature also helped in the development and in addition validation to the
instrument.

 

Pilot
study

a)      Validity

1.      The
instrument consisting of questionnaire to measure the opinion of the students on
Preparedness of Prospective Teachers in Promoting Peace Education in the
different Universities Lahore was conducted as a pilot study.

2.      The
focus Group, in the first phase comprised the 03 M.Ed. 03 M.A Education students
of different universities of Lahore and the 03 M.Ed. & 03 M.A Education in
different universities situated in  Lahore.

3.      Response
from the pilot study was used to review and revise the items which were
apparently ambiguous or were not appropriate and relevant to the study.

4.      In
the second phase, the instrument was further modified in the light of the
supervisor’s guidance.

5.      Based
on the comments of students, received through the pilot study and guidance of
the supervisor, the draft consisting 78 items was reduced to 64 and 2 items
were revised in the questionnaire.

b)     Reliability

1.      For
reliability 0: M.FA &r. 10 MA Education students of selective Universities
of Lahore and the 10 M.Ed& 10 M.A Education many universities located in
Lahore.

2.      For
assessing international consistency “Based on determination of how all items on
a test related to all other items and to the total test. ” “Gay, 2005)

Cranach’s
Alpha for the Questionnaire was found 0.93

3.      On
the whole the reliability co efficient were satisfactory, through in measuring
individual perception in such studies, even the “reliability in the eighties”
is acceptable (Gay, 2005)

Distribution of Questionnaire
and collection of Data

Researcher himself visited all the
concerned institutions i.e. Divisions/Campuses.

Questionnaire was distributed among 513
students of B.Ed, M.Ed, M.A Education, Mphil (edu) and PHD (edu).

The receiving ratio of the questionnaire
was about 75 percent which can be Considered positive.

Data
Analysis

The gathered data from the students was
analyzed with the help of computer programmed (statistical package for social
science) SPSS. Data for Preparedness of Prospective Teachers in Promoting Peace
Education was collected on five point likertscale (Not at All, To  Some Extent, To Medium Extent, To Large Extent
and To Very Large Extent). To analyze the collected data Researcher used
descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentage mean and standard deviation) on
64 variables. This data was compared in a collective form. Opinions of
Prospective Teachers were compared and interpreted by applying ‘t-test’ and
ANOVA.

Independent sample Vistas.This
kind of parametric statistical test is employed to assess Whether there significant
difference between the means of two samples is a significant (Frankel &Wallen
2008).

 

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