Historically, and leaders also seems sector dependent, as

Historically, the
approach to CI within a third of these organizations has entailed the adoption
of Lean and Six Sigma Programmes without deploying any previous CI initiatives,
as shown in Table III. The other two thirds indicated that they used TQM, Kaizen
or both as the foundation for their Lean and Six Sigma programme. This finding
could lead to the conclusion that TQM and Kaizen are well recognized by many Saudi
Arabian organizations, particularly those in the private sector.
Notwithstanding the recognition of these techniques and the interest of managers
in using new forms of quality tools (Alsaleh, 2007), the literature indicates
that the implementation of TQM has faced many obstacles in Saudi Arabia such as
the lack of a well-defined process, the lack of effective communication, the
diversity of the customers,

etc. (Al-Shafei et
al., 2015). Table III also shows that private sector organizations are more
familiar to CI practices than their counterparts in the public sector. There are
a number of reasons for this phenomenon, like the nature and policy within each
sector or whether the person championing change is a leader or a manager. On
the one hand, a clear example of the former is the perception of job security.
While in the public sector being made redundant for poor performance
evaluations is highly unlikely, in the private sector job safety greatly depends
on performance and customer satisfaction. On the other hand, the duality
between managers and leaders also seems sector dependent, as leaders are more
likely to drive change in private organizations while managers are more
dominant in public organizations (Drummond and Al-Anazi, 1997; Al-Qahtani and
Al-Methheb, 1999). Complementary to the historical approach to CI methodologies,
the participants were questioned about the use of other business process improvement
methodologies such as business process management (BPM), theory of constraints
(TOC) and business process reengineering (BPR). Table IV shows that the above
practices were more common amongst the oil and chemical industries than in
other sectors. Regardless of the size of the organization, BPM and BPR were used
in a quarter of organizations from the sample. Furthermore, 6 per cent of the participants
(particularly those whose parent companies were based in western countries) used
methodologies internal to their organization in addition to those afore

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