In the 18th Amendment says, “After one year

In the United States, prohibition was the national ban on the making, selling, and transporting alcohol. In the late 1800’s people had already viewed alcohol negatively. People started demonstrating temperance — the abstention of alcohol. Although some people viewed alcohol as a bad thing, there were still people who enjoyed alcohol or the industry around alcohol. Rejection of prohibition became very common throughout the United States. The prohibition movement all started towards the beginning of the 20th century. There were several anti-alcohol groups throughout the 19th century. The most prominent ones were the American Temperance Society, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. The most relevant of all of these prohibition groups was the anti-Saloon League. This league was formed in 1893 and eventually had much power over alcohol and its involvement in with the government (Kerry). People believed that prohibition was necessary because of their religion, or possibly their experience. Men would often spend large amounts of money they had and not provide for their family. People didn’t take this to heart very well and that was a main reason there was sharp decline in support of alcohol. Section 1 of the 18th Amendment says, “After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.” This amendment was set into effect January 17th, 1920. The amendment was written a year previous on January 16th, 1919. This amendment was very controversial in the early 1900’s. Some people believed that alcohol was morally wrong, that it was against their religion. Other people thought the repeal on alcohol was pointless. Some believed that this would cause an increase in crime because outlawing alcohol wouldn’t do anything, that people would still make, sell, and transport alcohol, and crime rates would increase. The people who were for prohibition were called the Drys, and people were against prohibition were called the Wets. During the prohibition movement there were ways that abstinence was enforced by progressive groups. The main enforcement group is called the Bureau of Prohibition, and later became the ATF. The unit was used to enforce the Volstead Act which evolved into the 18th Amendment. The Bureau of Prohibition tried to go against the rejection by shutting down illegal alcohol businesses. Behind the scenes people had opened speakeasies, “. . . a substitute for the saloon that would prove to be much more than a saloon . . . phrase used to define any illegal drinking place” (Okrent). Speakeasies were the peak of prohibition rejection by Americans from every social class. The criminals who worked speakeasies were called, “bootleggers.” Bootleggers were the people who either owned or transported the alcohol between home and business. Bootleggers participate in what’s called rum-running. Rum-running is smuggling of alcohol. Alcohol wasn’t to be sold in business. It was a complicated situation when it came to drinking alcohol. According to law if anyone had alcohol in their house before the 18th Amendment in January 1920, they were allowed to keep in their homes but it was to stay private. Speakeasies were the not-so-legal way around prohibition. Bootleggers held the speakeasies in clubs, bathrooms, and even their own houses. All someone needed was to sell alcohol from there and they were considered rum-running. All of the alcohol that was stored in warehouses, before prohibition, was still available. This alcohol was really sold to doctors or religious officials.One of the most famous bootleggers was named George Remus. Remus had a number of jobs, from store clerk to optometrist to lawyer. In between all of these jobs he became a pharmacist. Remus, while working in pharmacy, he had the authority to buy alcohol that was stored before prohibition. He bought this produce under the jurisdiction that he was to use it for medicinal purposes. Then, people who claim to be patients were able to purchase it from pharmacies. In 1920, Remus fled to Cincinnati, Ohio because there was a very small amount of organized crime. An iconic speakeasy that was very popular in the 1920’s was named the Cotton Club, this was opened in 1923 in the heart of Harlem, New York. The club was segregated, excluding the staff. The workers at the club were mostly African Americans, the only workers who were white were the dancers. The club was decorated up to resemble a plantation. The club had to shut down and reopen repeatedly during the Harlem race riots.Another infamous bootlegger in the prohibition movement was Arnold Rothstein. Rothstein created the Broadway Mob, which was the most responsible gang for rum-running in the New York area. Arnold Rothstein himself was never a big fan of alcohol (Lawson). According to the book his wife wrote after he died, he drank champagne and even that was on rare occasion. The suspected reasoning behind his death was a murder and the motive ahd to do with his rum-running agenda. After Rothstein died, the Broadway Mob was taken over by  Charles Luciano and other big bootleggers in New York.Due to all of the illicit action from the mobsters, people started to swing their views. Americans sought, through prohibition, for people to stop drinking. The complication with that was all of the alcohol in warehouses couldn’t just be thrown away. After people started to view that crime rate was increasing. Homicide rates in America went up. After the Great Depression people were trying to just grasp for money while rum-running criminals had lots of it and the American people didn’t see it as fair.Section 1 of the 21st Amendment says, “The eighteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.” This amendment went into effect December 5th, 1933. This amendment was proposed because of the rejection of the 18th amendment. While people still participated in speakeasies and worked alongside bootleggers, more people started to believe that outlawing alcohol was pointless and they switched sides. Crime rates increased, which caused more police time and money, which is taxpayers money. After the 18th amendment was repealed, some states continued to participate in the progressive ideas.Prohibition was very interesting space of time that happened in American history. The ratification of the eighteenth amendment made progressives happy. When people like George Remus started making illegal alcohol sales. When people realized that prohibition barely reduced alcohol consumption and that America’s crime rate would actually increase. Due to the numbers, people then viewed prohibition as pointless, and that led to the twenty-first amendment.

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