Internal backbone connectivity point, through which all components

Internal System Unit Components  The processor or CPU is the brain of a computer which performs calculations which enables the computer to function the way it does. The main job of the processor is to Request information from devices, Modify and create new information and send information back to devices. Processors are taken in the measurement Hertz or Hz which is the number of calculations that the processor can perform each second. They are connected to a motherboard by either being inserted into a socket or slot. A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer. The motherboard is a computer’s central communications backbone connectivity point, through which all components and external peripherals connect. BIOS (basic input/output system) is the program a personal computer’s microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on. It also manages data flow between the computer’s operating system and attached devices such as the hard disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse and printer. The PSU is a component that supplies power to a computer. Most personal computers can be plugged into standard electrical outlets. The power supply then pulls the required amount of electricity and converts the AC current to DC current. It also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes and surges common in most electrical systems. Not all power supplies, however, do an adequate voltage-regulation job, so a computer is always susceptible to large voltage fluctuations. The main purpose of a heat sink is to expel heat from a generating source. Heat sinks work through the process of conductive and convection heat transfer. Heat sinks are a passive form of cooling, as they have no moving parts and require no power. In most cases, heat sinks are used in conjunction with fans. A fan is a hardware device that keeps the overall computer, or a computer device cool by circulating air to or from the computer or component.         Parallel Ports In the early years of computers, the parallel port, the most common interface on a computer that is intended primarily for printers and other devices. The downloaded data eight bits at a time over eight separate lines in a parallel cable with a DB-25 female connector, part of D-Sub miniature connector style. Speed ??data transfer is limited to 150 Kbps (kilobits per second) and could only send a range of ten meters. Standard parallel ports only transmit data unless it was a two-port, which most computers are equipped with the 1994th  Serial Ports Serial ports, also called COM ports used to connect devices such as modems via a serial interface connection means that a data bit in the order of one second. It is located on the back of a PC. Especially, it was a 9-pin and 25-pin male size. The transfer speed is limited to 57KBps and a maximum cable length of 50 meters.  USB USB ports are run on computers since 1995 and became standard on most computers in 1998. They are another type of serial port with the name of that coming to a wide range of different devices such as keyboards, printers, scanners and mice to connect to. It is designed to plug and play, a force that both the parallel and serial ports to a standard to be defective. It is also expanding the use of USB hubs USB ports along with data if necessary, another option is missing from its predecessors. USB has many specifications that the performance increases. The first incarnation had a transmission speed of 12 MBps (megabytes per second) and up to 480 MBps in version 2.0 makes it much faster than the older form factors increased. This technology also covers the other external devices like mobiles, cameras and almost all other technology related items.        A hard disk drive or HDD is a non-volatile memory device that permanently stores and retrieves data on a computer. The hard drive is a secondary storage device that consists of one or more platters in which data is written by using a magnetic head, -inside of an air-sealed casing. Internal hard disks reside in a drive bay, connect to the motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable, and are all powered by a connection to the power supply.  SATA- Stands for ‘Serial Advanced Technology Attachment’ or ‘Serial ATA’. They are used for connecting host bus adapters for example the computer to mass storage devices such as a hard drive. SATA cables are thin and long and includes 7-pins. They are now being used on most new computers.  IDE- This stands for ‘Integrated Drive Electronics’. This type of connection which is used to connect optical drives and hard drives together as well as supplying a connection to the motherboard     EIDE- ‘EIDE’ stands for ‘Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics’. It makes the computer and the storage driver have a standard electronic communication. It also allows for faster access to the hard drive.   Master/slave- The master drive responses to the commands and controls the slave drive. It’s considered as the first drive and the slave drive is referred to as the second drive. As the slave drive controls the other devices.   Internal Memory (RAM, ROM and Cache) RAM is a fast-temporary type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored and when a computer loses power all data stored in the RAM is lost. Here are some examples of what’s stored in RAM:  – The operating system  – Applications  – The graphical user interface (GUI)  ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user. ROM keeps its memory after the computer is turned off unlike RAM. For example, ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned on again.  Cache memory is a specialized form of computer memory. Cache is designed to speed up the computer by prioritizing its contents for quick access. It works by the cache holding copies of recently accessed data such as web pages and pictures on web pages. It keeps this data ready to appear onto your screen within fractions of a second. So, instead of needing your computer to go to the original web page the cache offers you the copy from your own hard drive. This caching memory speeds up page loading because the next time you request that page, it is accessed from the cache on your computer instead of from the distant Web server.   Network Card A network card connects your computer to a local network or the Internet. The card translates computer data into electrical signals which is sent through the network. The signals are compatible with the network, so computers can easily exchange information. Because of the popularity of the Internet and networks virtually all desktop and notebook PCs have some form of interface card included but if not, you can also add one. A network card functions as a middleman between your computer and the data network. Such as when you log in to a website, the computer passes the site information to the network card, which then converts the address into electrical impulses. Network cables carry these impulses to a Web server across the Internet, which then responds by sending a Web page back to you, in the form of electronic signals. The card receives these signals and turns them into data that your PC displays.  Graphics Card A graphics card is a display adapter or video card installed within most computing devices to display graphical data with high clarity, colour, definition and overall appearance. A graphics card provides high-quality visual display by processing and executing graphical data using advanced graphical techniques, features and functions. A graphics card is designed to remove the graphical processing tasks from the CPU or RAM. It includes a dedicated graphical processing unit or GPU and dedicated RAM that helps process graphics quickly. Like most processors, a graphics card also has a dedicated heat sink to keep the heat out of the GPU. A graphics card enables the display of 3-D images, image rasterization, higher pixel ration, a broader range of colours and more. A graphics card includes expansion ports such as AGP, HDMI and TV inputs. A graphics card can be integrated within the motherboard or be added on as an extension card.     Output Devices An output device is any device used to send data from a computer to another device or user. Most computer data output that is meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Thus, most output devices used by humans are in these categories. Examples include monitors, projectors, speakers, headphones and printers. The monitor displays the computer’s user interface and open programs, allowing the user to interact with the computer, typically using the keyboard and mouse. A printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheets of paper. Printers vary in size, speed, sophistication, and cost. In general, more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution colour printing. A camera is a device for recording visual images in the form of photographs, film, or video signals.  Input Devices An input device is a hardware device that sends data to a computer which allows you to interact with and control the computer.  The most commonly used or primary input devices on a computer are the keyboard and mouse. A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types and for scanning black-and-white only, or colour. Very high-resolution scanners are used for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower resolution scanners are adequate for capturing images for computer display. A plotter is a printer that interprets commands from a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or more automated pens. Unlike a regular printer, the plotter can draw continuous point-to-point lines directly from vector graphics files or commands. Twisted pair cables are quite literally a pair of insulated wires that are twisted together to help reduce noise from outside sources. Coaxial cables are high-frequency transmission cables made up of a single solid-copper core in which data is transferred electrically over the inner conductor and has 80X more transmission capacity than twisted pair cables. An optical fibre cable, also known as fibre optic cable, is an assembly like an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibres that are used to carry light.  Backing Storage Advantages of all disks, pen drives, optical media and flash memory cards are that they are both cheap and light meaning that they are easily portable, but a disadvantage is that they do not contain as large of a storage as a hard drive and but examples such as the pen drive will usually have a higher transfer speed than a hard drive but not a SSD.  P2  Backups would be stored on a separate hard drive which its sole purpose is to copy the hard drive so there becomes a copy which ensures that if one hard drive fails there will be a backup ready for use. Another way of backup is with cloud storage. Files can be directly uploaded to cloud storage which remotely stores your information on a server on the internet. Another method of backup is with a passport. These devices can easily store large amounts of data at a cheap price with a 1TB passport costing just under £40.00. Backups should be done once a week and only important information should be backed up such as documents as copying an entire hard drive would take a lot of time and storage space.       P3  Software For network monitoring I have chosen an expensive but effective software to provide the best protection against any cyber-attacks which is a costing £1,195 but will prevent most known attacks or breaches before they occur. For DDOS protection I have chosen the Free cloudflare package which includes Access to account Audit Logs, Unmetered Mitigation of DDoS, Global CDN, Shared SSL certificate and 3-page rules. Cloudflare will ensure that the servers and website will not go down due to a DDOS attack with the best protection against attacks on the market at no cost. With the implementation of Audit logs in both cloudflare and the network monitoring software I have chosen, it will also ensure that no unauthorised employees or clients will be able to access any unnecessary information or documents. With the implementation of these software’s it will ensure that the network is best protected against all sorts of attacks. All computers will be running windows 10 pro edition costing only £20 a key. On administrator computers they will also have access to Linux which provides a large range of tools for the user. Also, office 365 should be included which will help the employees complete any tasks that they may face in their daily job.  Hardware For the client being a small sized business, I have appropriately chosen a relatively cheap server, the HPE ProLiant ML30 Gen9 Server which costs £811.40. This server comes equipped with an Intel® Xeon® E3-1200 v5 processor with four cores. The server also comes with an 8MB L3 processor cache with a speed of 4.0GHz. The maximum memory is a large 64GB with 4 DIMM slots for memory having the memory type of DDR4 UDIMM. The server also comes with a 1Gb 332i Ethernet Adapter network controller and comes with a LFF SAS/SATA/SSD drive. This server both comes at a low and affordable price for a small business and will be able to complete any task given at ease by the users of the network. Another component that will be required is a network adapter. I have chosen a TP-LINK TL-WDN4800 PCIe Wireless Card which costs £20 each but provide extremely fast network speeds. Basic Ethernet cables will also be plugged into every computer to ensure for speeds quicker than by using a Wi-Fi connection if required. The cable connectors used will be basic RJ45 connectors. For an internet connection I have chosen the Virgin Media business edition which comes with unlimited UK calls costing £55 per month with no line rental fee. This comes with a fast connection of up to 350Mbps download and up to 20Mbps Upload speed with unlimited usage which is suitable for the business and provides either a dynamic IP address or up to 5 static IPs.    Network Sharing Network sharing will also be implemented, and all files will be stored in the centralised server for easy access for anyone needing to access a document or any sort of information.  Maintenance Each computer will be maintained monthly checking for any hardware faults that may exist and therefore parts can then be replaced which will ensure that the machines are kept efficient. Devices will also be updated weekly to ensure that the latest updates of each programme are installed on each device. This will help to keep the devices running as quick as possible.  Integration All systems will be interconnected in a bus topology to ensure that each machine can communicate with each other and therefore allow for ease of file transfer in the workplace.  Accessibility Accessibility features come standard on windows 10 which include Narrator, Magnifier, On-screen Keyboard, High Contrast, Sticky Keys and Filter Keys. These programmes greatly assist people with disabilities and ensure that they can use the system to the same standard as any other user.  P4  The first picture details before the operation to repair the computer was started, this picture shows with case on with all components still inside the computer system.          This photo shows the computer system with the cover taken off with all components still inside the system.               This photo shows me with an anti-static wrist band on which ensures that I do not get electrocuted or the computer system does not fry due to an electrical current. Without an anti-static wristband electrical impulse will still flow through your body which may lead to an electrocution         Hard Drive  Disconnect the power cable and IDE interface cable from the back of the drive. Remember where each cable and connector go because you must reconnect them to the new drive. There might also be a small audio cable connected to the drive. Detach this cable from the back of the drive Removing the drive cables      If the drive is attached to the case with screws, remove all screws?on each side?of the drive. Keep the screws because you will need them later. Removing the screws       Slide the drive forward through the front of the computer and remove it. Removing the drive         Slide the tip of a flat blade screwdriver in between the side of the bay insert and the body of the computer. Using the screwdriver, apply light pressure to one side of the bay insert while pulling it out slightly. Do the same thing on the other side, and remove the bay insert. Removing the bay insert      Align the new drive in the bay opening and slide it in until it is even with the front of the computer, aligning the screw holes in the drive with the holes in the computer. If the drive attaches to the computer with a plastic latch, snap and lock it into place. Aligning the holes   If the drive is attached using screws, attach the drive to the drive bay using all the screws. CD and DVD drives are susceptible to vibration, so it is important to seat all screws snugly against the metal drive bay. Attaching the drive     RAM   When removing RAM first ensure that you have an antistatic wristband put on, then undo the clips at each side of the ram slots which will allow the RAM to easily be pulled out.      When installing new ram make sure that you have positioned it the correct way, then simply place it in the slot and redo the clips to ensure it stays firmly in place.    CPU  Firstly, Locate the CPU’s fan and unplug its power cable from the motherboard. Turn the head of each of the “legs” surrounding the fan and heat sink to unlock it from the motherboard, and then pull each leg straight up to disconnect it. If your processor has screws instead of legs, simply unscrew them. Gently wiggle the heat sink and fan while pulling upward on the entire device to remove it from the CPU. Remove the latch holding the processor and lift the retaining piece out of the way. Lift the processor straight out of the socket, holding it by its edges.   Simply insert the new CUP making sure that you line up the two guiding notches on the socket with the notches along the edge of your chip. With the chip in the socket, you can lower the retention bracket back into place. Make sure that you slip the notch at the end of the bracket around the single screw at the base of the socket before you use the metal lever to lock the CPU into place.  To install the heatsink simply place the cooler on top of your CPU and then press the push pins into the holes at each corner of the socket. Once the pins have been pushed through to the other side of the motherboard, press the black locking tab down into the mounting pin and twist it toward the centre of the CPU, following the arrow engraved into the push pin, to lock the heatsink into place.  GPU  Firstly, Locate and unscrew/unclip the graphics card from the case’s mounting bracket. Then Gently pull on the expansion slot lever to unlock the card from the slot. Slide the card out of the graphics slot, and remove it from the computer.     You can now install your new graphics card into the open and unobstructed PCI-E x16 slot. Firmly insert the card into the slot, then push down the plastic lock on the end of the PCI-E slot to hold it in place. Next, use a screw to secure the graphic card’s metal retention bracket to your PC’s case. You can reuse the same screw(s) that held the cover bracket or your former graphics card in place.  Hard Drive    Firstly, Take the hard drive from where it rested in the tower. Do this by gently pulling it out of the tower. Next remove the IDE ribbon cable, this will run from your motherboard. Next remove the power connector and gently remove the hard drive from the case.      To put in a new hard drive you must plug in the IDE ribbon cable, then plug in the power connector and place the new hard drive into the tower where it will rest.     P5 Preventive maintenance is defined as the proactive maintenance of equipment before a fault or failure occurs. Preventive maintenance involves routine tasks to ensure that your system is running optimally and to avoid problems before they arise. There are several preventative measures you can take which include installing Windows updates, scanning for viruses and malware, and running cleaning programs. Anti-virus and anti-malware scans should be run at least once a week and these programmes should constantly be updated to combat new viruses. Remedial maintenance or corrective maintenance Corrective maintenance is any maintenance performed to return equipment to proper working order. Depending on the context of its use it may refer to maintenance due to a breakdown, or maintenance identified through a condition monitoring program. Corrective maintenance is performed when a breakdown is either planned or unplanned. In this case, planned corrective maintenance is likely to be the result of a run-to-failure maintenance plan, while unplanned corrective maintenance could be due to a breakdown not stopped by preventative maintenance, or a breakdown due to a lack of a maintenance plan. Unplanned, maintenance, like reactive maintenance, is much more costly than planned maintenance.  Preventative maintenance products include lubrication of moving parts, Replacement of worn or performance degraded parts and adjustments and tests should be taken. These are examples of preventative maintenance productions.  The Electronic Records Management Systems is a computer program or set of programs designed to track and store records. The software can be used to manage the creation and maintenance of records within classification schemes, apply retention and disposal schedules, and control access and use.  The purpose of maintenance is to ensure that all equipment required for production is operating at 100% efficiency always. I would choose preventative maintenance as it uses less manpower overall as systems are only checked one a month or even longer, which will mean that it will cost overall less money for the business as they are replaced before anything can go wrong with the system.   P6  Planning helps an organization chart a course for the achievement of its goals. The process begins with reviewing the current operations of the organization and identifying what needs to be improved operationally in the upcoming year. From there, planning involves envisioning the results the organization wants to achieve, and determining the steps necessary to arrive at the intended destination 

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