INVESTIGATE can be reduced only by eliminating or

INVESTIGATE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS
IN GROUP DYNAMICS WITH REGARD TO THE EMERGENCE OF LEADERS AND THE COMPLIANCE OF
OTHERS

 

Prepared for:

Ms. Anam Rahman Khan

Information Technology University

 

Prepared by:

Abdul-Subhan Fahad

 

Table of Contents

 

Chapter

I.          Thesis

a. Abstract……………………………………………………..……………iii

 

II.         Text

a. Introduction
…………..…………………………………………….……1

       i. Criteria
for a group……………………………….…………….2

ii.
Objectives of Group Dynamics…………………………..………3

iii. Elements
of Group Dynamics…………………………………..5

  
         1.  Task Roles………………………………………………6

2.
Relationship Roles….…………….……………….….6

3.
Self-Oriented Roles……………………………………6

iv. Norms….…………………………………………….…..……….7

 v. Leader effectiveness vs. Leader emergence………………….8

vi.
Followers……………………………………………………….…9
b. Method………………………………………………………….……….10

i. Participants……………………….…………………………….10 ii. Procedures………………………..……………………………11 iii. Measures and Materials………………………………………12

c. Results…………………………………………………………….……14 d. Discussion………………………………………………………………18
i. Application………………………………………………………18

ii. Limitations………………………………………………………19 iii. Future Research……………………………………………….20

e. References……………………………………………………….…….22

 

III.        Tables

a. List of Tables…………………………………………………..……….27

 

 

IV.       Appendices

a.   
Appendix A…………………………………………………….……….33

 

                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

                    

 

                                   INTRODUCTION

 

Group dynamics is a system of
behaviors and psychological processes which occurs within a social group or between
social groups. The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding
decision making behavior. Group dynamics are at the core of understanding
racism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These
applications of the field are studied in psychology, sociology, anthropology,
political science, epidemiology, education, social work, business, and
communication studies.

The role of
the leader is a common one in most groups. Groups can function without a
Leader, but this role is usually the first to emerge when a group forms .In
some cases the group’s leader is formally recognized and is identified through
a specified procedure but in many groups, a leader gains authority implicitly, as
other group members come to rely on him or her to guide the group.(Berger, Ridgeway
& Zelditch, 2002)Group members are usually more satisfied and productive
when their groups have leaders (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005)

 

CRITERIA FOR A GROUP

Ø  Formal social
structure

Ø  Interaction

Ø  Contain 2 or
more persons

Ø  Common fate

Ø  Same goals

Ø  Interdependence

Ø  Self-definition
as group members

Ø  Recognized by
others

 

OBJECTIVES OF GROUP
DYNAMICS

Ø To identify and analyze the different processes that have an impact on
group development and performance.

Ø To acquire the skills necessary to intervene and improve individual and
group performance in an organizational context.

Ø To build more successful organizations by applying techniques that
provide positive impact on goal achievement.

 

PRINCIPLES OF GROUP DYNAMICS

Ø The members of
the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group.

Ø Changes in one
part of the group may produce stress in other person, which can be reduced only
by eliminating or allowing the change by bringing about readjustment in the
related parts

Ø The group arises
and functions owing to common motives.

Ø Groups survive
by placing the members into  functional
hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goals

Ø The intergroup
relations, group organization and member participation is essential for
effectiveness of a group.

Ø Information
relating to needs for change, plans for change and consequences of changes must
be shared by members of a group.

DEVELOPMENT
OF GROUPS

 

The developmental process of groups
can be seen in different ways.

Firstly, it is useful to know the
persons who compose a particular group.

•          People
bring their past experiences

•          People
come with their personalities (Opinions, Perceptions, views)

•          People
also come with a particular set of expectations.

 

The priorities and expectations of
persons comprising a group can influence the   
manner in which the group develops over a period of time.

 

NORMS OF A GROUP

Group rules
always develop in a group in order to control the behavior of members. Norms
usually express the beliefs or desires of the majority of the group members as
to what behaviors should or should not take place in the group. These norms may
be clear to all members (explicit), known or sensed by only a few (implicit),
or operating completely below the level of awareness of any group members. Some
norms help group progress and some hinder it.

 

LEADERSHIP

 

Leadership
involves focusing the efforts of the people towards a common goal and to enable
them to work together as one. In general we designate one individual as a
leader. This individual may be chosen from within or appointed from outside.
Thus, one member may provide leadership with respect to achieving the goal
while a different individual may be providing leadership in maintaining the
group as a group. These roles can switch and change. There are two types of
leaders:

 

·       
Designated
leaders:

 

Officially recognized in their leadership role and may be
appointed or elected by people inside or outside the group. Assigned leaders derive their authority from their positions
in the company hierarchy. The titles you give them carry weight with the
employees they lead and you expect employees to show respect for the position.
Eventually, however, employees must come to respect the person. The assigned
leader must demonstrate wisdom, problem-solving skills and the ability to
motivate employees in order to maintain a position of leadership and justify
the assignment.

 

·       
Emergent leaders:

 

Gain status
and respect through engagement with the group. This type of leadership is distinguished by the leader
proving them before being formally given a leadership title. Emergent leaders
offer you the advantage of knowing in advance of a promotion that the person
can handle the job. This type of leadership can also garner the leader respect
among employees who know that the leader has shown the ability to work hard.
Employees may expect emergent leadership to demonstrate more empathy for the
worker than assigned leadership.

 

PERCEPTION VS. REALITY

Employees
may perceive that assigned leaders are educated, intelligent and wise, even if
they are not. This is because workers assume that you as the owner performed
some kind of screening process and found the best person for the job. This kind
of automatic authority has its pitfalls. If your assigned leader has areas in
which he is incompetent, employees can begin to resent having to follow such a
person. Similarly, an emergent leader may cause resentment if she has to make
decisions that help the company instead of employees. For example, an emergent
leader may come out against employee raises based on a review of company
finances. Employees can feel betrayed by an emergent leader, even though the
reality is the leader may be making wise decisions.

 

 

 

LEADER EFFECTIVENESS VS. LEADER
EMERGENCE

Leader emergence identifies the
factors associated with someone
being perceived as leader-like (Hogan et
al., 1994).

 

·       
Leader
emergence

Refers to whether or not an individual is viewed as a leader by
others who typically only have limited information about the individual’s
performance.

 

·       
Leader
effectiveness

Refers to a leader’s performance in influencing and guiding activities
toward the achievement of a goal

 

The characteristics of a leader are associated with
evaluations of leader quality and the criteria for effective leaders are of
interest to a variety of groups and organizations (Muchinsky,
2007).Organizational assessments of leadership effectiveness most commonly consist
of ratings made by the leader’s supervisor, peer, or subordinate or A combination
of the three (Judge et al., 2002). However, these ratings could be

criticized as potentially contaminated because they
represent an individual’s

perception of leadership effectiveness rather than
objectively measuring a

person’s performance (Lord, Foti, & De Vader, 1984).
This being the case,

researchers are now interested in the dynamics of what
causes leaders to

emerge within a group (Muchinsky, 2007).

 

STAGES OF
GROUP DEVELOPMENT

Four stages of group development were developed by Brucew Tuckman in 1965.
The four-stage model is called
as Tuckman’s Stages for a group. Tuckman’s model states that the ideal group
decision-making process should occur in four stages:

Stage 1: Forming (pretending to get on or get along
with others)

Individual behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others,
and avoid controversy or conflict. 
Serious issues and feelings are avoided, and people focus on being busy
with routines, such as team organization, who does what, when to meet,
etc.  But individuals are also gathering
information and impressions – about each other, and about the scope of the task
and how to approach it.  This is a
comfortable stage to be in, but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that
not much actually gets done.

Stage 2: Storming (letting down the politeness barrier
and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up)

Individuals
in the group can only remain nice to each other for so long, as important
issues start to be addressed.  Some
people’s patience will break early, and minor confrontations will arise that
are quickly dealt with or glossed over. 
These may relate to the work of the group itself, or to roles and
responsibilities within the group. Some will observe that it’s good to be
getting into the real issues, whilst others will wish to remain in the comfort
and security of stage 1.  Depending on
the culture of the organization and individuals, the conflict will be more or
less suppressed, but it’ll be there, under the surface. To deal with the
conflict, individuals may feel they are winning or losing battles, and will
look for structural clarity and rules to prevent the conflict persisting.

 

Stage 3: Norming (getting used to each other and
developing trust and productivity)

 

As Stage 2
evolves, the “rules of engagement” for the group become established,
and the scopes of the group’s tasks or responsibilities are clear and
agreed.  Having had their arguments, they
now understand each other better, and can appreciate each other’s skills and
experience.  Individuals listen to each
other, appreciate and support each other, and are prepared to change
pre-conceived views: they feel they’re part of a cohesive, effective
group.  However, individuals have had to
work hard to attain this stage, and may resist any pressure to change –
especially from the outside – for fear that the group will break up, or revert
to a storm.

 

Stage 4: Performing (working in a group to a common goal
on a highly efficient and cooperative basis)

Not all groups reach this stage, characterised by a
state of interdependence and flexibility. Everyone knows each other well enough
to be able to work together, and trusts each other enough to allow independent
activity.  Roles and responsibilities
change according to need in an almost seamless way.  Group identity, loyalty and morale are all
high, and everyone is equally task-orientated and people-orientated.  This high degree of comfort means that all
the energy of the group can be directed towards the task(s) in hand.

Ten years after first describing the four stages, Bruce Tuckman revisited
his original work and described another, final, stage in 1977:

Stage 5: Adjourning (mourning the adjournment of the group)

This is about
completion and disengagement, both from the tasks and the group members.  Individuals will be proud of having achieved
much and glad to have been part of such an enjoyable group.  They need to recognize what they’ve done, and
consciously move on.  Some authors describe
stage 5 as “Deforming and Mourning”, recognizing the sense of loss
felt by group members.

 

In the real world, groups are often forming and changing, and each time
that happens, they can move to a different Tuckman Stage.  A group might
be happily Norming or Performing, but a new member might force them back into
Storming. Seasoned leaders will be ready for this, and will help the group get
back to Performing as quickly as possible. Many work groups live in the comfort
of Norming, and are fearful of moving back into Storming, or forward into
Performing. This will govern their behaviour towards each other, and especially
their reaction to change.

   

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

·      
Demographics

 

The study
was conducted in an organization at Hyderabad. The sampling method used was
convenience sampling with a sample of 100 employees of the organization.

 

·      
Objectives of the Study:

 

1. To study various factors determining group dynamics in the organization.

2. To study the impact of the group dynamics on the overall growth of the
organization.

3. To study
the role of group dynamics in motivating the employees.

      4. To study various aspects resulting in
group dynamics.

      5. To study the changing needs and
expectations of employees.

      6. To develop strategies for GROUP DYNAMICS.

 

 

·       Research Design

 

Ø  Data
source                  :     Primary & Secondary Data

Ø  Research
Approach     :     Survey method

Ø  Research
Instrument    :     Questionnaire

Ø  Sampling
scheme         :    Random sampling

Ø  Contact
method            :     Personal / Direct

 

·       Method of collecting data:

 

Questionnaire:

Job holders fill in the given
structured questionnaire, which are approved by their superiors.

 

·      
Statistical Tools for Analysis

 

1.        Graphs

2.        Tables

3.        Charts

                                      

 

 

 

 

 

DATA INTERPRITATION

1. Team
members share information openly and freely

a. Strongly
agree                b. Agree                    c. Neither agree nor
disagree

d. Disagree                           e. Strongly disagree

 

 

 

Interpretation:

 

According to
the graph, 21 respondents strongly agree and 34 respondents agree that the team
members share the information openly and freely. 15 respondents disagree and 12
respondents strongly disagree that the team members will share information
openly and freely. 18 respondents have mixed opinion regarding the same.

 

 

 

 

1.    
Team members help each other

a. Strongly agree            b.
Agree                c. Neither agree nor
disagree

d. Disagree                     e.
Strongly disagree

 

          

 

Interpretation:

 

According to
the bar graph, it is observed that 57 respondents agreed that the team members
are having mutual understanding between them. While 27 respondents disagree
that there is no cooperation among the team members. 16 respondents are unable
to decide that regarding the statement.

 

2.    
Suggestions made by members are fully explored        

a. Strongly agree            b.
Agree                c. Neither agree nor
disagree

d. Disagree                     e.
Strongly disagree

                  

          

 

Interpretation:

 

It is observed from the above graph that the organization has given
importance to the suggestion given by 69 respondents and they are fully
explored. While 21 respondents feel that the suggestions made by them are of no
use. The remaining 15 respondents has shown neutral response on the same.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

The study on the group dynamics was taken up with the objective to study
various factors influencing on motivating employees and impact on the overall
growth of the organization. Further the study aims to understand the changing
needs and expectations of employees and also to develop strategies for group
dynamics. The present study also focused on information sharing, group
decisions making, Team accomplishment, Interpersonal conflicts, group relations
and the role of individual in the group.

The data collected from the primary source and the secondary sources was
analyzed using appropriate research tools like graphs, tables etc. From the
study, it was found half of the employees share their information open and
freely and take important decisions with the help of their Team and also find a
solution to any problem among the Team members. Further, the employees need
training to solve the problem and new methods to work.

It is suggested to the organization that to conduct regular meetings and
workshops to find solutions or new methods/techniques to work. The employees
should be asked for regular feedback of these programs and worked out
regularly.

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

K Aswathappa, Human Resource Management,
6thEdition, Publisher: Tata Mcgraw Hill Education Private Limited.

Gary Dessler, Biju Varkkey, Human Resource
Management, 12thEdition, Publisher:
Pearson in 2011.

C. R Kothari, Research Methodology: Methods and
Techniques, 2nd Edition, Publisher: New Age
International In 2004.

 

 

 

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