Principles attention to the democratization of security forces,

Principles of
Safety and Security

            From prehistory to modern times,
safety and security of individuals, families, organizations, societies, nations
and international systems have always been primordial. The need to overcome
from all forms of threats, such as hostilities, conflicts, extreme poverty, and
natural and man-made disasters are the enduring interests of state policies,
more so on these uncertain and volatile times. It is against this backdrop of a
complex security environment that we should survive and thrive in different
levels of security. (PPSFR, 2015)

relationship between civil society and the security sector is fundamental to
human safety. In many places, civilians view security forces with suspicion,
perceiving them as predators rather than protectors. At the same time, many
military and police also distrust civil society, questioning their intentions.
Yet, the security sector is a key stakeholder in the pursuit of peace. And
civil society is a key stakeholder in the pursuit of security. Thus, civil
society and the security sector can work with each other when they have a
common goal to improve human security. “Human security” is also known as
“multidimensional security” and “citizen security.”  Human security is distinct from, but may
overlap with national security.   
(Schirch, 2015)


all the attention to the democratization of security forces, protection of
civilians and civic assistance, there are relatively few training courses for
the military and police to learn about civil society or for civil society to
understand and relate to the security sector. All stakeholders need a shared
set of terminology, concepts, skills and abilities for civil
society-military-police coordination to support human security. While the UN
provides training for humanitarian civil military coordination, this is only
for humanitarian assistance. Formal, institutionalized training to enable
civil-military-police coordination to support a broader approach to human
security is still rare.  (Kasali, 2013)

            Public Security is the function of
governments which ensures the protection of citizens, organizations, and
institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of
their communities. The government’s role of ensuring the public’s safety and
security 1 is primarily handled by the police agency, the armed forces and
other public safety agencies or organizations. In the Philippines, the
government shared this responsibility of keeping private and public facilities
to the private security service providers or the security industry as they were
collectively called or referred to. 
(Aclan, 2015)

 “Human security” focuses on the individual and
community perspectives on security. Human security prioritizes violence caused
by both state and non-state armed groups, poverty, economic inequality,
discrimination, environmental degradation and health and how they affect
individuals and communities. Comprehensive human security includes three
components: freedom from fear, freedom from want, and freedom to live in
dignity. To address these problems, human security emphasizes the need for
“whole of society” efforts including security forces but also government, civil
society, business, academic, religious, media and other actors. Due to these
differing outlooks, national security and human security responses can often be
very different. (Schirch, 2015)



Current Status
of Licensed Private Security Establishments


            A total of 1620 licensed private
security establishments in the Philippines (2014) with 518 in Metro Manila
alone. The statistics provided by the PNP-SOSIA revealed that the majority of
the Private Security Establishments were actually located outside the National
Capital Region. (PNP, 2015)

            The population of the security
professionals in the country as of May 15, 2015 is at 649,134. This reflected
how immense the security industry is in terms of its scope 10 and population.
These security professionals were posted to different public and private areas,
buildings, facilities and offices to provide security services. They were armed
with low-powered fire arms and in some instances they were even allowed to be
armed with high-powered rifles with the authority from the PNP-SOSIA. These
were just some of the gargantuan tasks that were given to these security
professionals. The security guards compose about 90% of the population of the
security professionals in the country. The PNP-SOSIA recorded a total of
649,134 security guards all over the country as of December 2014. There are
275,561 security professionals in NCR which reflects 49% of the total
population of the security professionals in the country. Based on the
Statistics of PNP-SOSIA – Security Training Management Division (STMD), the
distribution of Public and Private Security Training Institutions in the
Philippines (2014) is has reached to 231. As of December 2014 the PNP issued a
total of 389 License to Operate Public and Private Security Training
Institutions (PSTI) in the country. It is also important to note that 231 or
59% of these PSTI were located in the National Capital Region (NCR) which is
the highest among the 16 regions of the country. In Luzon most of the PSTIs
were in Region 4 with 32 (8.2%) PSTIs followed by Region 3 with 21(5.4%). In
Visayas alone there are 44 PSTI’s which composes 11% and in Mindanao there are
41 PSTI’s or 10.5% of the total number of PSTI’s in the country. Most of these
PSTI’s in Visayas were in Region 7 has 21 while in Mindanao Region 11 has the
highest with 14. Although most of the PSTI’s were located in the National
Capital Region (NCR), the statistics shows that the other half of these
training institutions were located in regional provinces. (Aclan, 2015)

internationally accepted ideal police to population ratio is 1 : 500. The total
population of the Philippines as of May 1, 2010 is 92,337,852. However, the
Philippine 2 National Police (PNP) has only around 160,000 personnel as of
2014. In a report published by the National Statistics Office “The Philippines
in Figures 2014”, they reported that the police to population ratio in 2012 is
at 1 : 651. It is 151 point or 30% 3 higher than the ideal police to population
ratio of 1 : 500. It is in this regard, that the PNP is in need of developing
“force multipliers” or build alliances with the different stakeholders of the
community to complement this 30% vacuum in the police to  population ratio. The security industry at
present has over 640,000 security professionals deployed all over the country.
The population of the security professionals is four (4) times more than the
population of the PNP, making the security industry a valuable potential
force  multiplier for the PNP. (Aclan,


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