Provide a population do not change only the

Provide a clear definition of biological evolution. A: Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over time. 2.   How did Jean Baptiste Lamarck explain evolution, and why has the evidence not supported his explanation? A: Lamarck explained evolution by using two principles, the first one was use and disuse, the  idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while other body parts not being used became smaller. The second principle, inheritance acquired characteristics basically stating that organisms could pass it down to their offsprings.His theory was proven wrong because he believed acquired characteris were passed down and inherited by future generations, which if false because acquired characters don’t bring any new change to individual set of genes.3.   Explain, in detail, why one individual organism cannot evolve, but a population can evolve. A: Individual organisms do not evolve because they retain the same genes throughout their whole life. In fact it’s the population that evolves, due to the different genetic types changes frequently. Thus meaning Individual organism within a population do not change only the pollution gene does. 4. Describe how, in general, natural selection on individuals in populations is an “editing” process. A: natural selection is an editing process because it favors individuals that are already in the environment. For example, if one sprays pesticide go kill some insects, some insects would be resistant to it which would result in the surging and producing more offsprings resistant to the peptides. 5. Explain why the following statement is not exactly accurate: “Antibiotics like methicillin have created drug resistance in MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). A: The following statement is incorrect because a drug does not create resistance, but rather it selects traits that are already present in the population. 6. Explain how the existence of homologous structures can be explained by Darwin’s theory of natural selection. A: homologous structure means resemblances from organisms that were inherited by a common ancestor. Darwin proposed that an individual’s ancestral  species gave rise to a number of similar but distinct species. He looked at the Galapagos Island’s bird and noticed that there beaks were shaped different but still seemed to have something in common. When he took Galapagos Island’s bird specimens the results were in fact in many different species of birds. Darwin hypothesized that birds had been colonized by organisms that had stayed in south america  and then diversified, giving rise to new species in different lands. 7.Explain how sexual recombination (what is a more common name for this?) generates phenotypic variation. A: Another word for could be considered chromosomal crossover, meaning that half of a parents offspring was combined while the other half of the other parent’s genes is in the offspring,resulting in gene combination that didn’t exist. Sexual recombination and mutations increase the amount of variation within a group.sexual recombination,constantly generate new variations in populations. If it weren’t for this, all offspring would be identical to their parents and the only way for diversity to develop would be through mutations. 8. Define the terms population, species, and gene pool. Population,is a group of individuals interbreeding and producing fertile offspringGene pool, is the total number of every individual in an interbreeding populationSpecies refers to  a group of individuals that are similar who  potentially interbreeds and produces fertile offspring.  9. Write the 2 Hardy-Weinberg equations. Use the equation to calculate the percentage of carriers of cystic fibrosis (a recessive disease, you must have two recessive alleles to have the disease) ina population if the frequency of cystic fibrosis births in that population is 81 in 1000.  A: Equations (p + q = 1) , (p^2+ 2pq+q^2=1)81/1000= 0.081q= 0.081  to find p 0.081-1=.919p=.9192*0.081*.919=0.148878 Frequency is = 0.148878 to find percentage i multiplied the frequency by 100The answer is 14.88% 10. Given examples and then explain directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection. Directional selection: favor individuals at one end of the phenotype, and example of this  would be lighter mice. They are very easily seen by predators due to the dark rocks that they live in, thus making it harder to hide from predators. Disruptive selection: occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotype. An example of this would be light mice and dark mice living in an environment that is both favored for both, resulting in mice dark mice being selecting less than the light mice Stabilizing selection: favor individuals who have higher chances of reproducing than individuals who are less successful. An example would be, babies ranging from 3-4 kg and 6.6-8.8pounds, the smaller babies would’ve higher risk in mortality due to them being smaller. 11.How does the size of a population size effect genetic drift? A:Genetic drift occurs when sampling errors change from generation to generation causing a reduction in populations sizes. Typically affects smaller populations more because it pleases the chances of certain organism being reproduced. Thus decreasing the population size. 12. Explain the bottleneck effect and its impact on the genetic diversity in a population. A: The bottleneck effect usually occurs when a big disaster reduces the size of the population. Its impact on genetic diversity is that the previous generations wouldn’t be able to pass on their genes.   13. What is heterozygote advantage. Give an example. A: Heterozygote advantage is when somethings that is considered to be bad ends up being good for the organism. An example that could be considered is a sickle cell trait, it protects against malaria in heterozygotes, but is a deadly disease for homozygotes. Provide a clear definition of biological evolution. A: Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over time. 2.   How did Jean Baptiste Lamarck explain evolution, and why has the evidence not supported his explanation? A: Lamarck explained evolution by using two principles, the first one was use and disuse, the  idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while other body parts not being used became smaller. The second principle, inheritance acquired characteristics basically stating that organisms could pass it down to their offsprings.His theory was proven wrong because he believed acquired characteris were passed down and inherited by future generations, which if false because acquired characters don’t bring any new change to individual set of genes.3.   Explain, in detail, why one individual organism cannot evolve, but a population can evolve. A: Individual organisms do not evolve because they retain the same genes throughout their whole life. In fact it’s the population that evolves, due to the different genetic types changes frequently. Thus meaning Individual organism within a population do not change only the pollution gene does. 4. Describe how, in general, natural selection on individuals in populations is an “editing” process. A: natural selection is an editing process because it favors individuals that are already in the environment. For example, if one sprays pesticide go kill some insects, some insects would be resistant to it which would result in the surging and producing more offsprings resistant to the peptides. 5. Explain why the following statement is not exactly accurate: “Antibiotics like methicillin have created drug resistance in MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). A: The following statement is incorrect because a drug does not create resistance, but rather it selects traits that are already present in the population. 6. Explain how the existence of homologous structures can be explained by Darwin’s theory of natural selection. A: homologous structure means resemblances from organisms that were inherited by a common ancestor. Darwin proposed that an individual’s ancestral  species gave rise to a number of similar but distinct species. He looked at the Galapagos Island’s bird and noticed that there beaks were shaped different but still seemed to have something in common. When he took Galapagos Island’s bird specimens the results were in fact in many different species of birds. Darwin hypothesized that birds had been colonized by organisms that had stayed in south america  and then diversified, giving rise to new species in different lands. 7.Explain how sexual recombination (what is a more common name for this?) generates phenotypic variation. A: Another word for could be considered chromosomal crossover, meaning that half of a parents offspring was combined while the other half of the other parent’s genes is in the offspring,resulting in gene combination that didn’t exist. Sexual recombination and mutations increase the amount of variation within a group.sexual recombination,constantly generate new variations in populations. If it weren’t for this, all offspring would be identical to their parents and the only way for diversity to develop would be through mutations. 8. Define the terms population, species, and gene pool. Population,is a group of individuals interbreeding and producing fertile offspringGene pool, is the total number of every individual in an interbreeding populationSpecies refers to  a group of individuals that are similar who  potentially interbreeds and produces fertile offspring.  9. Write the 2 Hardy-Weinberg equations. Use the equation to calculate the percentage of carriers of cystic fibrosis (a recessive disease, you must have two recessive alleles to have the disease) ina population if the frequency of cystic fibrosis births in that population is 81 in 1000.  A: Equations (p + q = 1) , (p^2+ 2pq+q^2=1)81/1000= 0.081q= 0.081  to find p 0.081-1=.919p=.9192*0.081*.919=0.148878 Frequency is = 0.148878 to find percentage i multiplied the frequency by 100The answer is 14.88% 10. Given examples and then explain directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection. Directional selection: favor individuals at one end of the phenotype, and example of this  would be lighter mice. They are very easily seen by predators due to the dark rocks that they live in, thus making it harder to hide from predators. Disruptive selection: occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotype. An example of this would be light mice and dark mice living in an environment that is both favored for both, resulting in mice dark mice being selecting less than the light mice Stabilizing selection: favor individuals who have higher chances of reproducing than individuals who are less successful. An example would be, babies ranging from 3-4 kg and 6.6-8.8pounds, the smaller babies would’ve higher risk in mortality due to them being smaller. 11.How does the size of a population size effect genetic drift? A:Genetic drift occurs when sampling errors change from generation to generation causing a reduction in populations sizes. Typically affects smaller populations more because it pleases the chances of certain organism being reproduced. Thus decreasing the population size. 12. Explain the bottleneck effect and its impact on the genetic diversity in a population. A: The bottleneck effect usually occurs when a big disaster reduces the size of the population. Its impact on genetic diversity is that the previous generations wouldn’t be able to pass on their genes.   13. What is heterozygote advantage. Give an example. A: Heterozygote advantage is when somethings that is considered to be bad ends up being good for the organism. An example that could be considered is a sickle cell trait, it protects against malaria in heterozygotes, but is a deadly disease for homozygotes. Provide a clear definition of biological evolution. A: Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over time. 2.   How did Jean Baptiste Lamarck explain evolution, and why has the evidence not supported his explanation? A: Lamarck explained evolution by using two principles, the first one was use and disuse, the  idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while other body parts not being used became smaller. The second principle, inheritance acquired characteristics basically stating that organisms could pass it down to their offsprings.His theory was proven wrong because he believed acquired characteris were passed down and inherited by future generations, which if false because acquired characters don’t bring any new change to individual set of genes.3.   Explain, in detail, why one individual organism cannot evolve, but a population can evolve. A: Individual organisms do not evolve because they retain the same genes throughout their whole life. In fact it’s the population that evolves, due to the different genetic types changes frequently. Thus meaning Individual organism within a population do not change only the pollution gene does. 4. Describe how, in general, natural selection on individuals in populations is an “editing” process. A: natural selection is an editing process because it favors individuals that are already in the environment. For example, if one sprays pesticide go kill some insects, some insects would be resistant to it which would result in the surging and producing more offsprings resistant to the peptides. 5. Explain why the following statement is not exactly accurate: “Antibiotics like methicillin have created drug resistance in MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). A: The following statement is incorrect because a drug does not create resistance, but rather it selects traits that are already present in the population. 6. Explain how the existence of homologous structures can be explained by Darwin’s theory of natural selection. A: homologous structure means resemblances from organisms that were inherited by a common ancestor. Darwin proposed that an individual’s ancestral  species gave rise to a number of similar but distinct species. He looked at the Galapagos Island’s bird and noticed that there beaks were shaped different but still seemed to have something in common. When he took Galapagos Island’s bird specimens the results were in fact in many different species of birds. Darwin hypothesized that birds had been colonized by organisms that had stayed in south america  and then diversified, giving rise to new species in different lands. 7.Explain how sexual recombination (what is a more common name for this?) generates phenotypic variation. A: Another word for could be considered chromosomal crossover, meaning that half of a parents offspring was combined while the other half of the other parent’s genes is in the offspring,resulting in gene combination that didn’t exist. Sexual recombination and mutations increase the amount of variation within a group.sexual recombination,constantly generate new variations in populations. If it weren’t for this, all offspring would be identical to their parents and the only way for diversity to develop would be through mutations. 8. Define the terms population, species, and gene pool. Population,is a group of individuals interbreeding and producing fertile offspringGene pool, is the total number of every individual in an interbreeding populationSpecies refers to  a group of individuals that are similar who  potentially interbreeds and produces fertile offspring.  9. Write the 2 Hardy-Weinberg equations. Use the equation to calculate the percentage of carriers of cystic fibrosis (a recessive disease, you must have two recessive alleles to have the disease) ina population if the frequency of cystic fibrosis births in that population is 81 in 1000.  A: Equations (p + q = 1) , (p^2+ 2pq+q^2=1)81/1000= 0.081q= 0.081  to find p 0.081-1=.919p=.9192*0.081*.919=0.148878 Frequency is = 0.148878 to find percentage i multiplied the frequency by 100The answer is 14.88% 10. Given examples and then explain directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection. Directional selection: favor individuals at one end of the phenotype, and example of this  would be lighter mice. They are very easily seen by predators due to the dark rocks that they live in, thus making it harder to hide from predators. Disruptive selection: occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotype. An example of this would be light mice and dark mice living in an environment that is both favored for both, resulting in mice dark mice being selecting less than the light mice Stabilizing selection: favor individuals who have higher chances of reproducing than individuals who are less successful. An example would be, babies ranging from 3-4 kg and 6.6-8.8pounds, the smaller babies would’ve higher risk in mortality due to them being smaller. 11.How does the size of a population size effect genetic drift? A:Genetic drift occurs when sampling errors change from generation to generation causing a reduction in populations sizes. Typically affects smaller populations more because it pleases the chances of certain organism being reproduced. Thus decreasing the population size. 12. Explain the bottleneck effect and its impact on the genetic diversity in a population. A: The bottleneck effect usually occurs when a big disaster reduces the size of the population. Its impact on genetic diversity is that the previous generations wouldn’t be able to pass on their genes.   13. What is heterozygote advantage. Give an example. A: Heterozygote advantage is when somethings that is considered to be bad ends up being good for the organism. An example that could be considered is a sickle cell trait, it protects against malaria in heterozygotes, but is a deadly disease for homozygotes.

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