ResearchWe up into frames, animation starts with independent

ResearchWe use Animation everywhere:Marketing/AdvertisingMedical use/Health careEntertainment EducationSimulationsMobile ApplicationsGamesMoviesCartoonsWebpages/web application…but first, what is an animation:Animation is the process of displaying still images in a sequence to create the illusion of movement. These images can be hand drawn, computer generated, or pictures of 3D objects. One example is cartoons on television. The difference between animation and video is;  whereas video takes continuous motion and breaks it up into frames, animation starts with independent pictures and puts them together to form the illusion of continuous motion.Some definition:Persistence of vision: The illusion, why you see an animation moving is called Persistence of vision. For example, look at the flip book animation. Each new page is a frame. The pictures in real life are not really moving, but our brain sense it as it would be moving. This is because our eyes see an image for approximately 40 milliseconds. When a frame is changing, our eyes sense it, but our brain still has the previous image, so it senses it as it is moving.Frame rate: In animation, the frame rate is the number of frames or images that are displayed per second. The higher the frames per second, (fps) the smoother the animation will appear. The professional frame rate for animations is 24 fps and, for television, 30 fps in the U.S.Frames; In videos and animations, frames are individual pictures in a sequence of images.Animators: Animations are mostly made by animators. They are artists who are specialized in the creation of animations.Types of AnimationCel Animation (2D, Traditional , or Hand Drawn)Cel animation, or called as traditional animation, is one of the older forms of animation.This technique was used in cinema until the time when of computer animations arrived.Cel  animation involved animators drawing each frame hand by hand. In cel animation, animators draw images on a transparent piece of paper one frame at the time. Disney used to do animations with this technique. It requires hundreds of artists, and more years of hard work.This type of animation is used in movies, and television shows. This is because cel animation is highly detailed, and clean which is important in movies and television shows. The rest don’t use them because it takes very long to make the animation.Advantages It looks cleaner and has a highly detailed look. Does not need computer, just (hundreds) piece of paper. Traditional animation is revered as a classic art form. DisadvantagesThe animation process of traditional animation can be lengthy and costly.The biggest disadvantage of cel animation is the the lack of technical advantage and large amounts of repetition.Example for Cel Animation in Cartoons: Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Peter Pan, Sleeping Beauty, Aladdin2D animation2D animation is mostly referred as any key framed animation that is made on a flat surface, but can also refer to vector animations that uses the techniques of cel animation.  The 2D animation is a shortcut of two-dimensional animation. This means that the animation is completely flat. Usually it is drawn by hand. This technique exists since late 1800’s.  Because of this is unrealistic, it is not as used as the 3D animation in movies.The difference between 2D and 3D animation are the 2D animation is drawing a flat object and 3D animation you can see the object from all the sides.Examples of 2D animation are: Flick book, cel animation, drawn on film,photographic stills,Flash animation.This type of animation is used in medical use, advertisements, movies, television shows, computer games, websites, or education. This is because 2D drawing can be very easy to make so people can use it in medical uses,  and educations.Advantages:It is the freedom to deform the characters and exaggerate their reactions, and looks.The animator can do whatever they want with a scene.It is easy fixable.If the animator does something wrong, or just want to adjust the scene, he can just redraw part of the scene, he does not need to start again.It is easier to produce a 2D animation for a beginner, than to start with 3D animation. Disadvantages:Lack of technical advantage and large amounts of repetition.It is unrealistic.A takes a lot of time to do, because of the above seen (first) disadvantage.This type of animation, requires the user to have some art and draw skills.3D animation3D animation contains objects that appear in a three-dimensional space. They can be rotated and moved like real objects. 3D animation is used in video games and virtual reality, but it could also be used in presentation graphics to add some eye catching effect to the visuals. However this technique is most common in movies, and cartoons. This is because it is the most realistic type of animations.As I mentioned, this type of animation is used in video games and entertainment because it is eye catching, and realistic, also it is used in movies and cartoons, for the same reasons. 3D animation is used for advertisements as well because it is exciting and eye catching, makes the client remember and buy the product.Advantages: Visual effects; 3D animation is more realistic and exciting than other forms of animation.This type of animation enables movie animators, to create almost everything nearly as realistic as if it was living.Models made for 3D use, can be reused in future movies, games or everywhere. This decrease the cost of making of a film.Disadvantages:This type of animation is not as easy to manipulate, as for example a 2D animation.Sometimes can make a film weird looking, if the 3D effects are unrealistic.Flip book AnimationA flip book (or flick book) is a type of animation that is made with a series of pictures that are slightly different from one to another, so when the pages are flipped (by hand) quickly, the pictures appear to move. It relies on persistence of vision. Flip books are primitive forms of animation. The first flip book appeared in 1868, made by John Linnett. Mostly, the children use to do little animation on books, because it is not worth the work for animators.Advantages:It can be fun to do, and it is easy if you do it in an unprofessional way.You don’t need many tools, all you need is a pen/pencil a lots of paper.Because of the above seen fact, it is very cheap.  You don’t need to buy a computer, a camera, or an animator software, just pen/pencil and lots of paper.A professional, good looking flip book is eye-catching.Disadvantages:You need to be a good artist to produce a professional work.It is very time consuming, you need to draw hundreds of pictures by hand, to make a shorter animation.It is unsafe. If you damage your work or lost it, you need to redraw the whole animation.It is unrealistic. You cannot produce an as realistic animation as a 3D animation.Cannot really change fps accurately. Due to the fact that you flip through the pages with your thumb, you can control the speed but not as accurately.Stop-motion animationStop motion animation (also called as stop frame animation) is animation that is captured one frame at time, with physical objects moved between frames. How it works is very similar to the 2D animation, except using physical objects instead of drawings. The process of making the actual animation is to take a photo of your objects, characters, and background then move them slightly, and take another photo of them. You repeat it LOTS AND LOTS of times, then by a software you place the frames together, producing an animation. An example of this type of animation is the cartoon Kubo and The Two Strings (2016). This type of animation is used in cartoons mainly.Advantages:It is true, that it is time consuming, but the result is very cool looking. You can create some very good looking effects.The models don’t have to be perfect looking, due to the style of the this animation type.The resources are easy accessible, you only need a computer, a camera, materials for background, and character models.It is more realistic, because of the gravity, depth of field, etc..Disadvantages:It takes very long time to capture the frames. You need to capture each frame with a real camera. Just to make half a minute animation (with 30 fps min), you need to capture at least 900 pictures.Also, it takes very long time to edit the actual frames, because you need to place each frame next to each other one by one.Your animation’s quality can depend on a lot of factors. The quality of your camera, the lightning of the scene, the angle of the camera has to be perfect, the movements of the characters has to be similar, which is very difficult.Difficult timing: it is hard to shoot the images at correct timing, with correct speed.You have to create the separate audio tracks.It is very difficult to produce a fluid, good looking animation. (But when you do, it is amazing!)Source: of AnimationAnimation in AdvertisingAnimations in advertising calls attention to a specific product or service. The purpose of the animation is to increase the sell and profit. The animation is used in advertisement to give a feeling of reality and aliveness. It also helps to explain the product and get to the point quickly. The main benefit of using animation is to make it interesting and outstanding. One of the main advantages of using animation in advertising is the ability to create environments and worlds that could not be available or reproduced by a live action camera crew. Eg.: A flying man in the spaceAn animation that is used in advertising has to be original, and interesting; it has to stand out to get the customers’ attention; then to make the customers remember it and buy the product. The quality is really important in this usage, as to make the animation look cool, and interesting.Advantages are;It calls the customers’ attention.Easy to demonstrate the product.It can hype the product, use effects that are not real, but cool looking.Animation in Movies and CartoonsAnimation in movies and cartoon is used Animation in EducationA type of usage of animation is education. This is a short educational film.The purpose of this usage of animation, is to demonstrate the topic, make it understandable, and make the student remember. An example is medical animation.  It is usually based around a physiological or surgical topic, rendered using 3D computer graphics, or drawn by 2D animation. This type of animation does not need to have super quality, as it is just to demonstrate the topic. Also, the teachers (if they produce the animation) does not have that much time, to produce a professional looking animation. As long as a poor quality animation has enough knowledge in it, it does not require to make the animation outstanding. An animation that is used in education has to be understandable to help the students understand the topic, interesting to help the students remember the topic. Also it has to be straightforward, meaning make it easy to understand and visualise. Lastly, if it is in medical use, it has to be some kind of realistic.Advantages:Help students to remember the topic.Help students visualise the topic.Help students to understand the lesson.It tells much in less time. Meaning that, while it can take long time to read the whole book and understand the text, the animation could show it in minutes, fully understandable.File Formats in AnimationThe file format of an animation is based on how complex the animation is, where it is going to be used. For example, on a webpage; the file size cannot be large, while on an animated cartoon movie,  the file size can be very large, instead the quality is what matters.Dynamic HTMLDynamic HTML is a type of animation that is used on websites.HTML is a hypertext and is the code for internet browsers, this is the programming language of designing websites.  It is created by client side programming languages such as JavaScript. It is used to create very simple form of animations, for example; effects on button, dropdown menus, or moving objects on websites. The file format of this animation is .html and of the javascript, .js. This type of format is used on websites.Advantages:Unlike GIFs due to every frame adds to the file size, DHTML animations take up very little space.You don’t need any plugins, softwares to animate, you can just insert a code into your website.Another advantage is, that this method only loads content on the page that your are currently viewing, which means it takes less time to load in, than for example Flash animations. Disadvantages:The editing tools are not cheap, and unless you have a professional programmer, it is very difficult to use.Another disadvantage is the incompatibility. These days, everyone uses different web browsers. Some of them may not be compatible with the animations, which means the whole animation will not work.FlashFlash animation is very common on these days, because it is really easy to make. This form of animation allow people to create animation frame by frame. A big advantage is that users can use sound, and video to their animation. Flash animation is created by the software Adobe Flash.Advantages:Easy to use. You can create smaller animations with just a few minutes of practice.You can manipulate the animation very easily.They are compatible with almost every browser, even on mobile devices. It is vector based, which means there is smaller file sizes compared to GIF animations. It is because GIF animation uses bitmaps, which has larger file size due to the fact that the computer needs to remember every pixel in the picture. However in vector based images (like logos) the computer only remembers instructions. For example (this is a very simple example), from pixel 245 to pixel 890 fill with the color red. Also this means, that vector based images don’t pixelate (don’t lose quality), so they can be resized however the user want. Disadvantages:Takes long time to make an animation.Unrealistic; you cannot make an animation if Flash as realistic as in a 3D animation program.Using on website, it requires long time to load, at low internet speed.It requires a software installed called Flash Player, in order to show the content. Although most computers already have this software installed. SWF (Choosen file format)SHOCKWAVE FILE. Created and owned by Adobe. These files are created when exporting a Flash project. They are small file sizes so they are perfect for web site animations. You can control the quality of the exported animation. These files can use bitmap of vector objects. It can also run video and sound. Currently Apple devices don’t show swf files.MOVApple Quick Time. This file format is used in Apple’s Quicktime program. It is compatible with Apple and Windows computers. On Windows machines, the computer must have the Quicktime program installed. It can run video and sound.GIFGraphics Interchange Format. Small file size. This means that they are ideal for using on web sites where download speeds are important. The computer doesn’t need any software to run a gif.GIFs don’t need web browsers to have a plug-in installed to work. Lossless compression. GIFs can be compressed to keep the file size small without losing too much quality. Transparency. GIFs can have a transparent background, like the speaker above.AVIAudio Video Interlaced. This is an old format and was made by Microsoft. Files can be huge and this makes sharing difficult. But the quality is good and you can use it as a master version before changing it to something smaller.FLVFlash Video Format. This is the most common sharing format for video on the web. FLV is used on YouTube and TV websites. It has smaller file sizes because it can be compressed but can still be good quality. This makes it good for sharing and viral campaigns.WMVWindows Media Video. This format is also made by Microsoft and is played by Windows Media Player which every windows PC comes with already on it. It can make very small file sizes and is good for streaming instead of downloading all at the same time. But the small size does make the quality not so good. In this project I will be using Adobe Flash to create my animation. This will allow me to export your project as a single Shockwave File (SWF). These file types are small enough to put on a website and will play in most web browsers, and android phones.Source:Source has been deleted, I cannot find it anymore.Animated GIFs Animated GIF is a file format that allows the user to create an animation from a series of separated frames and then put them together to create an animation. This type of animation is mostly used on websites, as this format is supported almost every single browser.Disadvantages:This format of animation is not as flexible and has less control over the animation compared to other formats.It has only a maximum colour palette of 256 colours. This makes the animation worse quality than other animations’. Also, this disadvantage makes the animations look slightly pixelated.Another disadvantage, is that once it is converted to GIF file, it cannot be edited. It can make a designer’s life more complicated, if he or she has converted the animation to GIF and notices a little mistake, then the designer may have to start all over again.Advantages:Although I mentioned GIF animation as a “slow” form of animation it is very “fast” compared to Flash, Shockwave, and the rest of the formats, which is because it has very small file size.It has a very useful  feature, which is that the animation can be transparent. This feature makes the life of web designers much easier. Animation can be played over different backgrounds.

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