Saanjh T. L., Decker, D. J., Riley, S.

Saanjh KhattarHarris 211 January 2018Annotated BibliographyTopics Covered: Hunting and Food Resources”The Future of Hunting as a Mechanism to Control White-Tailed Deer Populations”Brown, T. L., Decker, D. J., Riley, S. J., Enck, J. W., & Bruce, T. (n.d.). The     future of hunting as a mechanism to control white-tailed deer populations.     In JSTOR archives. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3783834     (Reprinted from Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28(4), 797-807, 2000, Winter) While deer management moved through several phases to improve the rates of deer survival, no other option besides hunting are accepted by the public. Changes in the white-tailed deer population such as decreasing numbers of deer hunters and increasing numbers in the deer distribution prompted managers to overlook the future of hunting. Using hunting as a control mechanism is judged by 5 standards describing its effectiveness, tested at Crab Orchard Refuge and Bluff Point Coastal Reserve. We can replicate this by testing at different locations. Levels of agent influence on hunters are determined by land-use patterns (Foster et al. 1997) and hunter willingness for this idea (Curtis et al. 2000). The amount of deer killed increases with deer density with a dome-shaped correlation (Hansen et al. 1986, Foster et al. 1997).”Winter foraging strategy of white-tailed deer at the northern limit of its range”DUMONT, A., OUELLET, J., CRÊTE, M., & HUOT, J. (2005). Winter foraging strategy of white-tailed deer at the northern limit of its range. Écoscience, 12(4), 476-484. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42901729 Hoofed-animals store energy in winter, with food being their fount to help (Mautz, 1978; Tyler, 1987). Mautz (1978) and Huot (1982) claimed that although 30% of energy comes from body reserves, 40% of these animals are killed by starvation in winter. A study in the Pohénégamook winter area monitoring white-tailed deer habits proved that they restricted diet options, increased cropping rate and extended bite-size during winter. We can replicate this by introducing different foods to our specimen. Snow-sinking depth plays a factor in the deer foraging actions. The deer protein induction ranged between 11 and 19 plant species (reduced) and bite-size was increased during high sinking depth (Brown and Doucet, 1991). Cropping rate didn’t increase and the chemicals of the species in their diets remained consistent.”White-tailed Deer Foraging in Relation to Successional Stage, Overstory Type and Management of Southern Appalachian Forests”Johnson, A., Hale, P., Ford, W., Wentworth, J., French, J., Anderson, O., & Pullen, G. (1995). White-Tailed Deer Foraging in Relation to Successional Stage, Overstory Type and Management of Southern Appalachian Forests. The American Midland Naturalist, 133(1), 18-35. doi:10.2307/2426344 Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2426344 White-tailed deer groups haven’t changed with the presence of woody browse from the harvesting of timber. Deer don’t rely on twigs as their vital source of consumption (Cushwa et al. 1970; Harlow and Hooper, 1971). Data collection of specimens from sites throughout the Pisgah and Nantahala forests in NC were observed throughout all four seasons for forage availability (Wentworth et al., 1990a, 1992). We can replicate this by also observing the differences throughout the seasons. Conclusions included that green leaves of woody plants, acorns and fruit were the main dietary options annually. In spring, the deer ate leaves (41%) and stems (17%). The summer diet continued of green leaves (48%), fruit, fungi, and forbs. The fall diet included fruits and in winter, the deer ate acorns and leaves. “Hunting Intensity Age Movement Behaviour of White-tailed Deer”Little, A. R., Webb, S. L., Demarais, S., Gee, K. L., Riffell, S. K., & Gas     Kamp, J. A. (2016). Hunting intensity age movement behavior of white-tailed     deer Hunting intensity age movement behavior of white-tailed deer.     Basic and Applied Ecology, 17(4), 360-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/     j.baae.2015.12.003 It can be concluded that hunters are taking up the predatory role of white-tailed deer. A study in Oklahoma from the Forest and Wildlife Research Center found that as urbanization and habitat fragmentation increases and predators decrease, the impact humans have on wildlife species are still studied. We can replicate this by experimenting between wildlife and humans with different variables. A deer’s instinct is to move when coming in contact with hunters. Large amounts of deer can cause human-wildlife issues. Human predation evokes more from animals than if natural predators are increased (Frid and Dill, 2002). Deer harvest as they move with a presence of a hunter (Little et al. 2014). How to redistribute animals after disturbance impacts recreational activities is unknown (Gill, Sutherland & Watkinson 1996).

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