Sakinah*1, hypothesis (Ha) was accepted, while the null

                           

Sakinah*1, Asnawi Muslem1, and Diana Fauzia Sari1

 

1Syiah
Kuala University, Banda Aceh

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*Corresponding author: [email protected]

 

Abstract

This study was a quantitative
research about the implementation of Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review
(SQ3R) a strategy for solving specific questions individually and for helping
students to memorize teaching materials, in teaching reading descriptive text.
It was intended to find out whether or not SQ3R strategy could improve
students’ reading comprehension. The subject of this study was all students of
class VIII-5 of SMP Negeri 8 Banda Aceh which was chosen by using simple random
sampling. The reason for conducting this study was due to the fact that
students’ reading comprehension was still low. Moreover, the design used in
this study was one group pre-test post-test design. In this study, the data was
collected through pre-test, treatment and post-test. From the result of the
study, it is found that mean of post-test (60) was higher than mean of pre-test
(30.95). It indicated that the students’ post-test scores were increased from
their pre-test scores Moreover, based on t-test formula, the result of t-score
(7.83) was higher than t-table (2.086). It means that the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) was accepted, while the null hypothesis (H0)
was rejected. Hence, it can be concluded that SQ3R strategy can improve the
students’ reading comprehension in descriptive text.

 

Key
Words : Reading comprehension, SQ3R, Descriptive text

 

1.         INTRODUCTION

            Reading is one of the most important skills
that should be mastered by students in learning English as a foreign language
(EFL). Reading is one important way to improve your general language
skills in English. Reading will help you to think in English, it enlarge your
vocabulary, and improve your reading and writing skill in English (Mikulecky and Jefferies, 1996,
p.1). The most
common goal of reading is text comprehension, the
construction of meaning that in some way corresponds to the author’s intended
meaning (Ruddell,
2005, p.88).

Based on
Curriculum 2013, the goal of teaching reading at eight grade of Junior High
School is the students are expected to comprehend a simple short functional
text in the form of descriptive, recount, and narrative based on its context
(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2013). It means that the students are expected to comprehend some kinds of
English texts.

Nowadays
many techniques and strategies can
be applied to solve
this problem and increase students’ reading comprehension. One of the
appropriate strategies is SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite,
and Review in reading) as strategy that suggested by Robinson in 1940’s such supposed in Ruddell (2005,
p.264). SQ3R is an effective active reading strategy to better understand written
content, the learning process would be done in five steps, they are survey,
question, read, recite, and review in reading. The main point of this strategy
is the students perhaps have high motivation because they are given a chance to
active in teaching learning process.

Furthermore, SQ3R is a complex strategy; the learners must have cognitive
resources and knowledge before they become experienced (Li, Chen, Fan, &
Huang, 2014, p. 320). In
addition, SQ3R focuses
on improving students’ comprehension when reading complex materials and serves
as a foundation for many reading strategies (Khaghaninejad, Saadabadimotlagh,
& Kowsari, 2015, p. 101). Moreover, SQ3R will help students in reading
process to understand text well step by step. As said by Ghazo (2015, p. 94) SQ3R presents a detailed step by
step outline at what a reader should accomplish while reading.

Based on
explanation above the researcher is interested in conducting the research entitle “Teaching Reading Comprehension through
SQ3R”

 

2.         LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      The
Definition of Reading

Reading is
an essential component of academic learning as well as a foundation for
becoming an informed member of the broader community. Failure to achieve
adequate reading proficiency denies students access to the essential tool for
further learning (Koda and Zehler, 2008, p. 1). Although reading and listening
are often referred to as ‘passive’ or receptive skills, in reality both involve
complex mental processing in order for the listener to make sense of material
(Hurd and Murphy, 2005, p. 80). Reading is a complex process that must be
modelled, taught, practiced, and evaluated on daily basic (Stone, 2009, p. 40).

Furthermore,
McDonough, Shaw, and Masuhara (2013, p. 110) said that as a skill, reading is
clearly one of the most important. Many evidence shows that, reading is the
most important language skills, especially for students have to read their
material for their subject in English. English has also been the main driving
language or dominant language of the internet. People who cannot read will not be
able to acquire new information from written media. According to those views,
it can be inferred reading help people to gain knowledge.

 

2.2      Descriptive Text

Descriptive
text is a text which describes about the features and characteristics of a
certain thing in detail (a person or a thing). Its purpose is to describe and
reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

The generic structures of descriptive are:

a.       Identification
(introduction); the part of paragraph that introduces who, where, or what is being
described the story.

b.      Character
description; the part of paragraph that describes the characteristic, parts and qualities of the subject
being described.

The language features of descriptive texts are Pronouns, Nouns, Noun phrases, Adjectives, Preposition, Adverbs, Linking  verbs,Present tense, and Attributive has and have.

 

2.3      SQ3R

SQ3R which
stands for survey, question, read, recite/recall, and review- is a system that
has been practiced for many years (Richardson and Morgan, 2003, p. 361). In
addition, Francis P. Robinson, the education psychology as a creator of SQ3R, spent years teaching both college students and military personnel
how to learn from text books. His system, if used consistently, can still
produce big rewards (Flemming, 2009, p. 2). SQ3R is a step to decrease
forgetting and raise reader comprehension. There are explanations each step of
SQ3R according to Flemming, (2011, p. 2-31)

S = Survey

Survey is the step to get general overview and make predictions.
It has four goals give reader following

1.)  
a general overview of material

2.)  
a feeling for researcher style and organization

3.)  
a sense for what’s important

4.)  
an idea of the text natural break or
decisions

Q = Question

Ask and answer question while reading. Raising and answer question
during a study session help you remain mentally active throughout your reading.
Using question to maintain your concentration can also keep your alert to key
points address in the chapter.

R= Read

Read difficult material in sections or chunks. In this step while
reading you may write such as identify main point or list some specific use to
explain the point. It helps you really understand what you read. It also
excellent way to support you in remembers the point.

R = Recall/ Recite

Summarize and repeat to yourself what you have just read and take
notes in your own word. See how much you can recall right after reading. It is
become important because of two reasons:

·        
It is a way to monitoring your understanding
before you going to next section

·        
It is shows the rate of forgetting and
increase your chance or remembering what the author of text actually said

R = Review

Review right after completing the
assignment. Check the accuracy of your note against the text and connect any
inaccuracies. The goals of this step are:

·        
To get sense
of how the parts of a section connect

·        
To confirm
or revise you initial predictions about sections content.

 

3.         METHODS

            In this study, the researcher will use quantitative research.
According to Arends (2004, p. 495) quantitative research is an approach to
research that assumes a goal reality that studies conducted in an objective way
and uses statistical methods to investigate data. This study used experimental
research design that was intended to answer research problem. The research
employed a pre experimental design. The model of this experiment design was
called one group pretest – posttest design. The
design consists of a pre-test, followed by treatment, and then a post-test.

This research was conducted in SMP Negeri 8 Banda Aceh. Meanwhile, as the sample of this research was
class VIII-5. This class had 21 students which consisted of 11 male students
and 10 female students. This class was selected by using simple random
sampling.

After the result of pre-test and post-test collected, to analyze the
result of the tests, the researcher used the following scoring system:

One correct answer =           10

The sum of the questions = 10

Total score = 10 x 10 = 100

The sum of the student’s score = the correct answer x 10

 

Additionally, the researcher used quantitative
analysis to analyse the data. First, the researcher calculated the average
score (mean) of the students. Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen and Razavieh (2010, p. 108) have described the formula of
mean as follows:

Where:

 = mean                                                                               ?
= sum of

N = number of students                                                       = scores

 

Then, the researcher used the formula of
standard deviation to investigate the variability of the study. The formula of
standard deviation that has been defined by Ary et al. (2010, p. 177) as follows:

Where:

SD = standard
deviation                                                        ?
= sum of

D = difference between pre-test
and post-test scores      N = number of students

 

Finally, the researcher used
t-test to find out the significant difference between pre-test and post-test.
The t-test formula as stated by Ary et al. (2010, p. 177) is:

 

Where:

t = t ratio                                                                                ? = sum of

D = difference between pre-test and post-test scores      N= number of students

D = mean of D

 

4.
        FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1
     Findings

              The
result is about students’ learning outcomes after being taught by using SQ3R.
As explained in the previous chapters, this study aims to determine the
significant effect of SQ3R towards students’ performance in reading
comprehension. To find out the effectiveness of SQ3R, the following sections
elaborate the process of teaching implementation along with the data analysis
of the students’ reading score which was collected through pre-test and
post-test. Then the
results of the research were analyzed by using some statistical analysis.
Moreover, the explanation of the results of the research will be deeply
explained in the following section.

             

4.1.1   The Result of Pre-test

            Before
applying SQ3R in teaching reading, it was necessary to know the students’ ability
in comprehending descriptive text. In the first meeting, pre-test was given to
the students of class VIII-5 to get the data needed. The result of the pre-test
is shown in table 4.1.a

Table 4.1.a The Distribution Frequency of Pre-test Score

Class Interval
(Students Score)

Frequency
(Students)

Percentage of Student (%)

(10 – 19)

4

19

(20 – 29)

2

10

(30 – 39)

7

33

(40 – 49)

5

24

(50 – 59)

2

10

(60 – 69)

1

5

(70 – 79)

0

0

(80 – 89)

0

0

(90 – 90)

0

0

100

0

0

Total

21

100

 

Moreover, to make it clearer, the researcher presented the data in
figure 4.1.a to illustrate the students’ pre-test scores. The X axis represents
the score of pre-test, while the Y axis represents the number of students.

Figure 4.1.a The Students’
Pre-test Scores

From table 4.1.a and figure 4.1.a, it can be seen that the
students got various scores in which the lowest score was 10 and the highest
score was 60. In addition, there were four students (19%) who got the lowest
score (10), and there were only one student (5%) who got the highest score
(60). However, most students (33%) got 30 score. So, it can be concluded that
the students’ reading comprehension was still low. Furthermore, it also
revealed that no student could reach KKM which was 75.

 

4.1.2   The Result of Post-Test

The researcher gave post-test as a final test to determine the
students’ ability in reading comprehension after accomplishing treatment. The
result of the post-test is exposed in table 4.1.b

 

Table 4.1.b The Distribution Frequency of Post-test Score

Class Interval
(Students Score)

Frequency
(Students)

Percentage of Student (%)

(10 – 19)

0

0

(20 – 29)

1

5

(30 – 39)

2

10

(40 – 49)

3

14

(50 – 59)

3

14

(60 – 69)

5

24

(70 – 79)

0

0

(80 – 89)

3

14

(90 – 90)

3

14

100

1

5

Total

21

100

 

In addition, to make it clearer, the researcher presented figure
4.1.b to illustrate the students’ post-test scores. The X axis represents the
score of post-test and the Y axis represents the number of students.

Figure 4.1.b The Students’
Post-test Scores

Table 4.1.b and figure 4.1.b show the students’ post-test scores.
Furthermore, it can be seen that the highest score of post-test was 100 that
was obtained by one student (5%). Whereas, 20 was the lowest score of post-test
that was reached by one student (5%). In addition, most students (24%) got 60
which showed that there was an improvement of students’ reading comprehension
compared to pre-test.

However,
referring to the school regulation, there were only seven students that reached
the score of KKM. It means that SQ3R did not significantly help the students to
reach KKM regulated.

 

4.1.3   Students’ Pre-test and Post-test scores

In this section, the students’ pre-test and post-test scores will
be compared in one histogram, figure 4.1.c. Thus, the comparison of students’
pre-test and post-test scores can be observed in detail. In figure 4.1.c, the X
axis represents the students’ scores of pre-test and post-test, while the Y
axis represents the number of students.

 

Comparison pre-test result and
post-test result

Figure 4.1.c The Students’
Pre-test and Post-test Comparison Scores

 

As shown in figure 4.1.c, it can be noted that in general the
post-test scores were higher than the pre-test scores. In addition, the lowest
score of post-test was 20 which rose for about 10 of the lowest score of
pre-test that was 10. Meanwhile, the highest score of post-test was 100 that
rose for about 40 of the highest score of pre-test that was 60.

Besides, the most frequent score in pre-test was 30 that were
obtained by seven students. Otherwise, the frequent score in post-test was 60
that were achieved by five students. Hence, most students’ scores changed
significantly in the post-test.

 

4.1.4   Mean of Pre-test and Post-test

            Mean was necessary to measure the
students’ pre-test scores and the students’ post-test scores. The formula of
mean is total score of the students (?X) divided by total number of the
students (N). Moreover, the mean of pre-test and post-test scores can be
compared to indicate the improvement of students’ reading comprehension.

The
calculation of mean of students’ pre-test scores is as follows:

 

 

While, the
calculation of mean of students’ post-test scores is as follows:

Based on
the results of both mean, it can be seen that mean of post-test was higher than
mean of pre-test. The difference between two mean was about 29,05. Hence, in
average, the students’ pre-test scores increased significantly to the students’
post-test scores. This could be concluded that the use of SQ3R could enhance
the students’ reading comprehension.

 

4.1.5   Standard Deviation

After comparing mean of students’ pre-test
and post-test scores, the researcher calculated the standard deviation. It was used to measure
variability or dispersion of students’ pre-testand post-test
scores. The calculation of standard deviation is as follows:

Based on the calculation above, it can be concluded that the
dispersal or range of students’ pre-test and post-test scores was 17.

 

4.1.6.  T-test

            After processing standard deviation,
the researcher calculated t-test in order to find out the hypothesis testing.
The calculation of t-test is as follows:

 

From the
data calculation of t-test above, it can be seen that t-score was 7.83. In
addition, to test the hypothesis, the t-score must be compared with t-table
(refers to appendix 12). If t-table > t-score, this means the alternative
hypothesis (Ha) is rejected, and the null hypothesis (H0)
is accepted. Otherwise, if t-table 2.086), it
means that the alternative hypothesis (Ha) was accepted while the
null hypothesis (H0) was rejected. Thus, all these analysis of data
indicated that the implementation of SQ3R improved the students’ reading
comprehension.

 

4.2.     Hypothesis Testing

In analysing the hypothesis, it is referred to the t- table at
level significance ? 0.05. The testing criterion used for hypothesis result is;
if t-test > t-table, it means that the difference is significance and the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected.
Furthermore, the t-table with the level significance of ? 0.05 of freedom (df)
n-1= 21-1=20 is 2.086.

 

4.3     Discussion

The researcher would like to
discuss about hypothesis testing. In this research, the researcher used level
of significant ? = 0.05. Moreover, for the testing criterion of the hypothesis:
if t-score >t-table this means that the alternative hypothesis (Ha)
is accepted, and the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected, while if
t-table>t-score this means that the alternative hypothesis (Ha)
is rejected, and the null hypothesis (H0) is accepted.

Furthermore, the researcher would
like to present the statistical data of the improvement of students’ pre-test
and post-test scores in table 4.3

 

 

Table 4.3The Improvement of Students’
Pre-test and Post-test Scores

Test

Total score

Mean

Standard
Deviation

T-Test

T-Table

Pre-test

650

30.95

17

7.83

2.086

Post-test

1260

60

           

   Based on the table 4.3, it can be concluded that pre-test to post-test score had an improvement. It could
be seen from mean of both tests. The mean of pre-test was 30.95, while in post-test was 60. If we compare the
two means of the tests, it was seen that the mean of post-test was higher than pre-test. It proved that the
treatment by using SQ3R could improve students reading comprehension.

 

5.         CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

            After completing this study, the
researcher illustrated some conclusions and suggestions in terms of the use of
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review (SQ3R) strategy in improving the
students’ reading ability in comprehending text. The data obtained in second grade students of
SMP Negeri 8 Banda showed that using SQ3R improve students’ achievement. Furthermore, the improvement of
students’ reading comprehension can be seen from some statistical data. First,
the mean of post-test was higher than pre-test (60 >30.95). This indicated
that there was significant difference among two mean scores. In addition, based
on the t-test analysis, the t-test score of the students was 7.83, while the
table was 2.086. Because t-test (7.83) was higher than the t-score measurement
table (2.086), it can be concluded that the result was significant which means
that the alternative hypothesis (Ha) was accepted and the null
hypothesis (H0) was rejected. In
short, SQ3R was effective to improve students’ ability in reading
comprehension.

        Regarding to teach reading comprehension by Survey, Question,
Read, Recite, and Review (SQ3R), the researcher gives some suggestions teachers
and the students as follows.

a.       For the teacher

The teacher must be creative to
used SQ3R strategy in order that students are interested and are not bored in
the teaching and learning process.

b.      For the
student

Students should be brave and
active in reading text because it is one of the best practices that can improve
students’ reading comprehension.

 

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Publishing Company.

Flemming, L. E. (2011). Reading for results (11th ed).
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