The on what constitutes personhood and when abortion

The purpose of this paper is to show that even if a fetus has a right to life, abortion is often morally permissible as long as the woman has consented to it because of certain circumstances. Abortion is seen as a deliberate action of terminating a fetus from the womb of a woman, at the request of the mother to result in death of the fetus. However, there is ongoing debate on what constitutes personhood and when abortion is possible. Mary Warren believes that this rests on humans in the moral sense which means being a member of the moral community. By certain circumstances, I am referring to how some people make exceptions when a mother’s life is in danger or when the pregnancy is the result of being raped. The woman who is undergoing the termination of the fetus should be able to make this decision based on her own situation. Nowadays, women who are minors, poor, or vulnerable suffer from the absence of safe and legal abortions. Abortions should neither be forbidden nor difficult to acquire. Denying women access to safe and legal abortions deprives them of their right to do what they want with their own bodies.  This course of action is morally justified by the theory of utilitarianism and the theory of ethical egoism.Reason One: Theory of Ethical Egoism In ethical egoism, the morality of abortion is decided by the mother. Abortion in this sense is only immoral if it is not serving the interests of the mother. The woman considers if abortion will change her life in the long run. If the mother says she is not ready for her baby, then it can be seen as immoral. However, if she is very sure she cannot handle a child based on where she is in her life, then the abortion would be in her own self interest and therefore moral. However, people view ethical egoism as being very selfish in any given situation.Ethical egoism says that all persons ought to act from their own self-interest. Pursuing your own self-interest is the best way to promote general good no matter others opinions and interests. It is a theory that stresses on the manner in which we are supposed to behave. It does not give us any moral duty of which we have to act upon. If we apply this theory to means of an abortion, the woman is not voluntarily doing the action, she is doing what she mostly wants to do. If the mother feels as if she is not fully and adequately prepared to have the child at the given point in her life, if she is financially unstable, if she is lacking good support to enable her to take care of her child, if she is emotionally unstable, if she is a student trying not to affect her education, or if she is a victim of rape, then having and abortion will be in her interest. Reason Two: Theory of Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is based on doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people. It is concerned with consequences but unlike ethical egoism it considers the interest of others in the situation. In these types of situations, an action can be seen as moral if it takes others interests into consideration. We can consider the fetus as a factor. There is a possibility in the future for the fetus to live a happy life but also there is the manner in which the termination can end up being painful. If the termination is carried out in the beginning or early stages of pregnancy and in a manner that is painless, then there is no pain associated with abortion as far as the fetus is concerned. The fetus is supposed to depend on the mother, so if it poses a significant risk on the health of the mother, then it should be aborted. This can considered to be a moral act if it is done while the child is deemed to be irrational and lacking consciousness, a trait needed to be considered a person or human. For example, a child being born out of rape can lead to them being treated undesirably in the future. This in the long run can even cause unhappiness in their society, the mother, and as well as to the child. There are also some instances where there are unhappy parents who struggle to make ends meet or parents who do not want to sacrifice their lives raising a child. Objection:  Don Marquis and Divine Command Theory Don Marquis, a Professor of Philosophy would have said that “abortion is, except possibly in rare cases, seriously immoral, that it is in the same moral category as killing an innocent adult human being…” Marquis believes that even if the fetus is not a person, the abortion is morally impermissible. He explains that a fetus has a valuable future just like how we do and killing the fetus deprives it from having a bright future. Therefore, killing a fetus is morally wrong. Therefore, abortion is morally wrong. Furthermore, people who follow or believe in the divine command theory would say abortion is wrong due to the fact that God states that it is bad. Things are morally good or bad, or morally obligatory, permissible, or prohibited, solely because of God’s will or commands. Many women when going through these abortions consider the faith that they practice and how the Bible says that abortion in the eyes of the church is condemned. A lot of Christians are harsh and blunt about their views on abortion. God has given us life to live, he created us to fulfill our purposes in this world. When we are killing the fetus, we are killing God’s creation. Reply to Objection: Women have the right to do whatever they want to their body. If they are not in a stable situation to the point where they can not have the child, they should be allowed to terminate the pregnancy. Minors, rape victims, or women with disabilities are sometimes vulnerable in their cases that they decide to have abortions. There are safe and legal abortions available to us. Mary Warren believes that abortion is morally permissible at any stage of a woman’s pregnancy and under any circumstances. This is because she does not consider a fetus a human being. What constitutes a person is if they are conscious and in the capacity to feel emotion, have the ability to reason, are capable to do things on their own, can communicate, and are self-aware. As for Christians who condemn people for getting abortions, not everyone is going to follow the religions rules. Every woman has their own freedom to make their own decisions. They are capable human beings that are going to make the decision that best fits their situation. Conclusion: In this paper I have given facts and information to show that abortion is permissible as long as the mother has consented to do it based on her circumstances, using the theories of ethical egoism and utilitarianism. If we deprive women this right to do whatever they want with their body, all their other rights will not matter either. In conclusion, we are allowing mothers to make a choice based on what she believes is right and what is in her own self interest.

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