The article shows the horrible condition
of Kurdish people who suffered a lot after 1919 when Mosul (Kurdish city) came
under Britain. Kurds started loud their voices against British rule in Kurdish
region. They were want independence according to the article 64 of the Treaty
of Sevres which was signed in Paris after the dismemberment of Ottoman Empire.
Many uprisings started in the Kurdistan region for independence. Mullah Mustafa
Barzani established Kurdistan Democratic Party in 1945 with the support of
Soviet Union. The clashes started among Kurds and Iraq. Mustafa Barzani fled to
Soviet Union after getting defeat from Iran. But when Iraqi government
recognized Kurds national rights in 1958, Mustafa Barzani returned to Iraq.
Iraq relations with Kurds took serious because of Iraq’s repression but the
peace accord was signed among both parties in 1970. The Peace Agreement failed
when government imposes a draft of the autonomy which would have left the oilfields of Kirkuk
under the control of Iraq but KDP rejected this draft. The Iraq called them
rebellion and war broke out. This regional conflict brought lot of destruction
in region. Algair Accord of 1975 signed between Iran and Iraq which ended
Iranian support for Kurdish uprising.
Jalal Talabina who was the former leading member of KDP
declared the establishment of PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan). So the
clashes started between KDP and PUK. During Iraq Iran war, KDP were friendly to
cooperate with Iran while PUK were hostile to cooperate but when Iraqi Military
killed Jalal Tallabani’s brother and nieces than both parties had received
support from Iran. Iraqi military Started Al-Anfal campaign in 1988 against
Kurds in which chemical weapons were used to suppressed them. Ten of thousands
lost their lives and Thousands of villages of Kurds were destroyed. Thousands
of people were died in Halabja town due to poison gas attack.
After the Gulf war Coalition forces declared The Safe Haven
for Kurdish. Jalal Talabani and Masoud Barzani started renegotiate with Iraq
while the Kurdish Forces took control of Dohok, Arbil and Sulaimanya. So the parliamentary
elections were held in Kurdish control area in 1992. Civil war broke out among KDP
and PUK in 1994, even KDP asked to Iraqi Government for help to defeat PUK. UN
signed agreement “Oil for food” with Iraq in 1996, after that both parties
resolved their issues through Peace Agreement in 1998 and started cooperation.
Kurdish stance was neutral on Iraq during the US invasion in
Iraq. KDP and PUK took advantage to negotiate on “Transitional Administrative
Law” in which Kurdish language were become one of the two official languages.
After the lot of efforts, at last Kurdish were able to establish self rule in
Kurdistan. Masoud Barzani was selected the first Premier of Kurdish
After a plenty of sacrifices the condition of Kurds are much
better than before, they have more influence and power. They have own self-rule
now. But some critics say about KDP that this indulged nepotism because the
Barzani’s son in law is KRG Prime Minister and his own son is Head of KRG’s
Intelligence Directorate and his uncle is Foreign Minister. The public also complains about bad water
storage, electricity and corruption.
Another major conflict among Iraq and Kurds is Petroleum rich
Kirkuk is still unresolved. It has significance due to the oil richness;
therefore it is important for Iraq and Kurdistan. It is the source of oil
therefore Kurds always fight for Kirkuk. Because of this issue the relations
among Baghdad and KRG can never be resolve.