Unit Great Britain], which allows the colonies to

Unit 2 Causes of the American Revolution Study GuideAssessment on Friday, September 29, 2017**Salutary Neglect: king ignores the colonies for many years due to the distance between colonies and Great Britain, which allows the colonies to develop their own form of government—colonies are going to be extremely upset when the king starts to try to control them (after so many years of self-government)**Mercantilism: colonies only exist to provide raw materials and wealth to the mother countryCauses of the American Revolution I.French and Indian War, 1754-1763a. Conflict between France (and Native American allies) and Great Britain (and American colonists AND Native American allies)b. Fought over the Ohio River Valleyc. Great Britain wins—signs Treaty of Paris, 1763i. Receives all land EAST of Mississippi Riverd. With all the land west, the colonists were excited to begin migrating weste. Results of the French and Indian Wari. Proclamation of 1763 signed by King George III1. Stopped colonists from moving west2. Wanted to prevent conflict between the colonists and Native Americans in the Ohio Valley3. Colonists angry—felt like their freedoms were being taken awayii. British needed money to pay for the war war debt = higher taxes1. Believed they defended the colonists…2. So, the colonists should help pay for the cost of the war (TAXES)II.Sugar Act, 1764a. Placed taxes on sugar, molasses, and other non-British importsIII.Stamp Act, 1765a. Required colonists to buy a stamp for every piece of paper usedi. Newspapers, documents, playing cards, etc.b. Affect a wide range of people throughout the coloniesc. Sons of Liberty—a group of Patriots who wanted to protect the rights of the colonistsi. Convinced the British Parliament that the Stamp Act would NOT be obeyed d. Daughters of Liberty—formed to boycott British goods and to provide things that were boycotted to all colonists**First evidence of NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION—never voted any representatives into Parliament, so they should not be getting taxed!! **Colonists begin to get angry about civil liberties being violated.IV.Quartering Act, 1765a. Soldiers were allowed to stay in anyone’s house, if they needed a place to stayb. Colonists COULD NOT say NOc. Becomes 3rd Amendment to the Constitution because this upset so many colonistsV.Townshend Acts, 1767a. Set of customs duties (taxes) on British glass, lead, paints, paper and teab. Result = boycott of British goods (a peaceful protest where people refused to buy or use British goods)i. British lose A LOT of money!VI.Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770a. Mob of colonists confronted British soldiers on the streetb. A fight broke out, soldiers opened fire and killed 5 colonistsc. Result 1= Parliament repealed (got rid of) most of the Townshend duties i. Hoped that tensions would die down in Boston and partly because of the loss of money due to the boycottsd. Result 2= Sons of Liberty and Samuel Adams used incident as propaganda called the colonists innocent bystanders being viciously attacked by British Redcoats in order to increase protests of British rule and control VII.Tea Act, 1773a. Gave British East India Company the sole right to sell tea in the coloniesb. Colonists saw it as a complete control of tea tradec. Result = Boston Tea PartyVIII.Boston Tea Party, December 16, 1773a. Sons of Liberty dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded three British tea ships in Boston Harbor (Massachusetts)b. Broke open tea chests and threw 90,000 pounds of tea in the water (about a million dollars’ worth of tea)c. Result = Intolerable ActsIX.Intolerable Acts, 1774a. Result of Boston Tea Partyb. Laws closed Boston Harbor, shut down all civilian courts, placed Massachusetts under firm British control and more troops sent to Bostonc. Prompted anger throughout the colonies and began to work together to oppose British ruled. “Minutemen” begin preparing for an organized fight between them and the RedcoatsX.First Continental Congress, September 5, 1774a. Representatives meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniab. Colonies decide to unite in order to better protect their rightsi. Also, call for a complete boycott of all British goodsXI.Battle of Lexington and Concord, April 18, 1775a. Minutemen called into action by Paul Revere (“The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere”)b. 700 British soldiers marching from Boston to take a stockpile of weapons in Concord, Massachusettsc. Shot rang out in Lexington, Massachusetts—small battled. British continued to Concord, and were stopped at the North Bridge by more Minutemene. First shots in the American Revolutioni. “The shot heard ’round the world”XII.Second Continental Congress, summer 1775—July 4, 1776a. Representatives meet again in Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniab. Had to decide what to do about the fighting between the colonists and the Britishi. Moved toward independence from Great Britainc. Chose Thomas Jefferson to draft the Declaration of IndependenceXIII.Declaration of Independencea. Written by Thomas Jefferson, July 1776b. Adopted and signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776i. Says:1. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”2. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are unalienable rights that belong to every citizenc. 4 Parts of the Declaration:i. Preambleii. Rights of the Colonists1. Unalienable rights that belong to everyone: life, liberty and the pursuit of happinessiii. Grievances Complaints of the Colonists1. Grievances and Fixes (in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights)a. King of England should not have imposed taxes without the consent of the colonistsi. Constitution says “Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises”b. Under the Quartering Act, soldiers were allowed to stay in people’s homesi. Bill of Rights, Amendment 3 says that is illegaliv. Declaration of Independence1. Break up with Great Britain2. Leads to the American Revolutionary War becoming increasingly serious People of the American RevolutionI.John Adams—on committee to write Declaration of Independence; defended the British troops in the Boston Massacre trialII.Samuel Adams—leader of Sons of LibertyIII.Mercy Otis Warren—wrote anti-British propaganda supporting independenceIV.Benjamin Franklin—on committee to write Declaration of IndependenceV.Crispus Attucks—African and Native American descent, 1st to die in the American Revolution during the Boston MassacreVI.King George III—King of England before and during the American Revolution VII.Patrick Henry—gave a speech with the “Give me Liberty, or Give me Death” phraseVIII.Thomas Jefferson—primary author of the Declaration of IndependenceIX.Thomas Paine—author of Common Sense (a pro-independence pamphlet)a. Common Sense, published January 10, 1776i. Convinced many American colonists to become Patriots ii. Convinced many American colonists that independence from Great Britain was necessaryX.George Washington—commissioned to be Commander in Chief of the Continental Army XI.John Hancock—first man to sign the Declaration of IndependenceXII.John Locke—wrote many essays on natural rightsa. Thomas Jefferson took Locke’s ideas of natural rights and turned them into ‘unalienable rights’XIII.Paul Revere—member of Sons of Liberty; warning related to Battles of Lexington and ConcordXIV.Wentworth Cheswell—African American patriot who rode with Paul Revere**Point of View: the way you see something**Bias: opinion**Remember when looking at primary sources to recognize the author’s BIAS or POINT OF VIEW toward the topic.**

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