When clearance and removal of top soil. On

When
all laboratory tests are done and it is proved that soil is suitable for construction
of the building then substructure works can be carried out.

First
of all we have to start with a site clearance and removal of top soil. On the
small building sites it can be done manually by hands with a shovels, picks and
wheelbarrows. Depends of nature of the site, soil condition and the amount of
the soil we decide what mechanical method we are going to use and what plants
to use when cleaning the site. Plants like bulldozer, dumper and excavator
could be hired and delivered to the building site. When choosing size of machines
need to take into account size of foundation, nature of the site and time
elements.

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In the places where is excavation works are carried out there is a
probability of
ground or rain water occurrence. There are several methods how to deal with this
problem:

Water
pump have to be used to pump out the water from trench. For a small volume of
water Simple Sump Pumping can be used.

To
stop the water flow within the ground can be used a method of insertion of an impermeable
barrier.

Another
method called Temporary Exclusion can be used to lower of the water table with
the economic depth of 1.5 M can be achieved by subsoil drainage methods, but
for a deeper treatment a pump are needs to be involved.

Jetted
Sumps method is similar to Simple Sump method but it will prevent movement of
the soil.

WellPoint
System method is used to lower the water table to position below formation
level to provide a dry working area.

Ground
water can be controlled with a thin Grouted Membranes. This is non-structural
barriers which are inserted in to the ground to enclose excavation area.

After the
problem with water is solved and excavation works is completed we are moving to
next stage of
creation the Foundation. For construction of five storey hotel building Piled Foundation
is good option. The construction process of Pile Foundation includes a series
of columns inserted into the ground to transmit the loads of the structure to a
lower level of subsoil. This type of foundation is suitable for our project
because our site is located close to the river and it more likely to be with subsoil
which may be subjected to moisture movement and low bearing subsoil capacity. It is
necessary to take into account that high water table will increase to high permanent
dewatering costs.

For
creating of Piled Foundation different technics can be used, those are:
Replacement Piles, Percussion Bored Piles, Flush Bored Piles, Small Diameter,
Rotary Bored Piles, Large Diameter Rotary Bored Piles, Displacement Piles,
Timber Piles, Preformed Concrete Piles, Steel Tube Piles, Partially Preformed
Piles, Wooden Piles, Driven Insitu Piles and Driven Insitu Piles. 

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